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H A N D B O K 



A R R A N G E D 

With Over Eight Hundred Diagrams and Illus- 
trations and Suggestions for Nearly 
Ten Thousand Figures 

George H. Browne, A. M. (Harv.) 

Cambridge Skating Club 

The International Skating Club, Davos 

The Skating Club of Boston 

Fourth Edition 

Revised and Enlarged 

. With sixty additional pages on the 

International Style 

Published by 


Springfield, Mass., U. S. A. 


COPYRIGHT, I900, 1904, 1907, 1913, BY 

George H. Browne, A.M., 

The Browne \3 Nichols School, 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, U. S. A. 

R E 


N order that this little book may be most 
effective for use on the ice, the practical 
part has been put at the end for con- 
venience; and the hints and cautions 
therein have been reduced to the small- 
est compass consistent with clearness, by 
the separation of the theoretical and his- 
torical matter by itself in the earlier 
parts. This inversion, though permitting a systematic 
presentation in a logical order from the general to the par- 
ticular, brings at the beginning of the booklet matter unat- 
tractive to the reader, unless he already has some knowledge 
of skating or active interest in the art. The novice, there- 
fore, will find Part I easier and more interesting, if he first 
familiarize himself with the names, definitions, illustra- 
tions, etc., in Part II. He will do well, consequently, to 
read Parts I and II before venturing upon the ice with 
Parts III and IV. 

Although something is said of every type of figure, a 
book of this size can not say all that may be said of any 
figure. Nor does it aim to make a wholly original contri- 
bution to skating literature: it aims only to give accurate 
information as far as it goes, and to make more available 
the skating literature that already exists. To this end, 
copious references to the best books and occasional ex- 
tracts from them are given; special permission to print 
which is acknowledged with thanks to Messrs. Longmans 
& Co., Macmillan & Co., Horace Cox, Esq., of the Field, 
and A. D. Innes & Co.'s successors, Ward, Lock & Co., 
London; to Perry, Mason & Co., Boston; and to the 
other publishers in the list on pages 18,19. The Austrian 
books are to be heartily recommended to American skat- 
ers, especially Holletschek's, for its cheapness and its 
wealth of illustrative material, which is well adapted to 
our style of skating, and perfectly intelligible to those who 
do not read German, if they simply note that forward is v 
(vorzvarts) not f; backward, r (ruckzvarts) not b; out- 
side, a (auszvarts) not o; and inside, e (einzvarts) not 1, 

Rva =rof =Right outer forward. 

Rve =rif = Right inner forward. 

Lra =lob =Left outer backward. 

Lre =lib =Left inner backward. 

The author also wishes to make grateful acknowledg- 
ments to Mr. E. H. Barney, of Springfield, Mr. Eugene 

B. Cook of Hoboken, N. J., and Col. C. E. Fuller of 
Boston, for valuable information, obtainable from no 
other source, in regard to early American Skating; to Mr. 
Louis Rubenstein of Montreal (Canadian champion 1878- 
89, American champion 1888-9, and world's champion 
1890), Mr. J. F. Bacon of Chambridge (champion 1893), 
Mr. Herbert S. Evans of Boston (champion 1896), to 
Mr. E. C. Hill of Brockton, Mr. L. A. Servatius of N. Y., 
and Dr. A. G. Keane of N. Y. (champion 1898-99-1900), 
for figures and photographs of later American skating; 
and for information and documents concerning English 
skating, to Dr. M. S. Monier- Williams and Dr. G. Herbert 
Fowler, Hon. Sec. N. S. A., of Great Britain, — concerning 
Continental skating, to Herr H. J. S. Wisinger, of the 
Training Eisclub, Vienna, Herr O. Schoning, editor of 
Deutscher Eissport, Berlin, and Edgar Syers, Esq., Lon- 
don, late Hon. Sec. N. S. A., — October, 1900. 

the first edition of this Handbook (1900), the development 
of the art has been marked by a falling off of interest in 
American and English Skating, with a corresponding in- 
crease in popularity of Continental Skating. The out- 
and-out Anglo-Swiss enthusiasts, however, like Mr. E. 
F. Benson (English Figure-Skating, London, G. Bell and 
Sons, 1908), Mr. Geo. Wood (Winter Sports Review, Jan. 
1912, p. 92), and Mr. A. J. Davidson (ib. Sept. 1912, p. 
256) are still loyal to the non-spectacular "ainited com- 
bined" (cf. p. 205). 

"To revive the interest in figure-skating which has fall- 
en off of late years," the Minto Club was founded in Otta- 
wa in 1904, and the Earl Grey Club in Montreal in 1908. 
Thes.e clubs have exchanged friendly visits with the 
Skating Club of Boston (Inc. 19 12), and the three will meet 
in competition at Ottawa, next February, for the new cup 
offered by H. R. H. the Duke of Connaught for the best 
Fours in the International Style. See pp. 205, 211. 

To keep this Handbook up-to-date in all develop- 
ments of the art, I have carefully revised it, and added 
over sixty pages, including new diagrams and photographs 
of pair-skating. For illustrations and other useful infor- 
mation, I wish to make grateful acknowledgments to the 
American Champions, p. 161, and to Dr. H. A. Whytock, 
of Salt Lake City; to Herr Fritz Kachler, Vienna, World's 
Champion 191 2, Herr Werner Rittberger, Champion of 
Germany 1912, to Herr Dr. and Frau Winzer, Dresden, 
Champions of Germany in Pair-Skating, 1912; and to 
Herr G. and Frl. Elspeth Muller, Miss Edith Eliot Rotch, 
Mr. George Atkinson, Jr., and others, of the Skating Club 
of Boston. — December, 1912. G. H. B. 



Introduction. — National Styles and Requirements. 
The Use of Diagrams and Illustrations . Page 9 

Figure Skating and Golf 
Correct Form, British and Continental 

Adapted to American Skating 

Rules for British Form 

Rules for American Form 
Brief History of Skating and Skating Literature 

chiefly English 
Select Bibliography up to date 
American Skating and Competitions 
Program of the American N. A. S. A. 
British Competitions and Tests 

Third Class 

Second Class 

First Class, Section A . 
Section B . 
Continental Skating and Competitions 
Prescribed Figures of the International Skating Union 
Program of the German and the Austrian Associations 
Hints for Beginners 
The National Championships — 

Of the World .... 

Of Europe . . 

Of America ..... 

Up to Date Records 
Methods of Judging and Scoring — British 

American ..... 

Continental .... 

British Rules for Tests in Continental Form 
The Skating of the Future . . • . 








The Elements, the Strokes, and the Combinations. 

The Elements of Figure Skating 

The Three Edges, or Q's 

The Four Edges . 

Continuous Eights 

Crosses and Stars 
The Simple Combination of the Elements — 

Simple Rolls and Eights (112 in number) 

Combinations of Two Elements (676) 

Combinations of Three Elements (8,788) 
The Strokes — 

1 From One Foot to the Other 








2 On One Foot (Turn) 

3 Turn and Stroke (Once Back) 
Table of Strokes — 

1 Same Edge, Same Direction 

2 Same Direction, Different Edge . 

3 Same Edge, Different Direction . 

4 Different Edge, Different Direction 
"On to Richmond" and Locomotives 
The Rhythmical Combination *of 


i In Field . . . 

2 In Circles .... 

3 In Ordinary (Perpendicular) Eights 

4 In Wing (Horizontal) Eights 
Hand-in-Hand Skating 

Pair Skating . . . . 

The Position of the Feet . 

The Position of the Head ancf Shoulders 

Balance ...... 

Boots and Skates .... 











Brief Hints and Cautions for Use on the Ice. 

Plain Skating, Lap-foot Circle 

Two-foot Serpentine 

The Four Edges — I Inside Edge Forward . 

2 Outside Edge Forward 

3 Outside Edge Backward 

4 Inside Edge Backward 
Change of Direction— I On Two Feet 

Grapevines .... 

II From One Foot to the Other. 

1 Without Change of Edge, Mohawks 

2 With Change of Edge, Choctaws . 
Cross Mohawks %and Cross Choctaws 

III On One Foot. 

The Four Turns — 

1 Threes: .... 
Two Turns, or Double Threes 
Multiple Turns, or Chain Threes 

Change of Edge, on One Foot 

The Four Q's — Change and Turn . 
The Four Reverse Q's — Turn and Change 
The Four Turns — • 

2 Brackets .... 

3 Rockers .... 

4 Counters .... 









Loops — I On Two Feet . . . . .100 

II On One Foot. 1 Single . . . 100 

2 Multiple . . 101 

Ringlets ....... 101 

Cross-cuts, Beaks, and Pig's Ears — 

I On Two Feet. 1 The Lily, the Lilac, etc. 101 

2 Combination Grapevines 102 

II On One Foot ....... 103 

Rockers and Counters, without forced Curve 104 
Beak-Q's, or Pig's Ears . . . 104 

New Varieties of Cross-cut . . . 105 

Spins — I On Two Feet. 

1 Whirls {Edge and Flat) . . .105 

2 Cross-foot Spins {Edge and Flat) . 106 
II On One Foot. 

1 Ringlet Spins {Edge) . . .106 

2 Flat-foot Spins {Flat) . . .107 

Combination Spins . . . 107 

3 Pirouettes {Point) . . . . 107 
Toe and Heel Movements — Pivot-Circling . . 108 
Hand-in-Hand Figures . . . . .111 
Pair Skating Figures . . . . . 112 
Continuous One-foot Figures . . . .114 


The New Skating Quite up to Date 

Regulations of the International Skating Union . 126 

Fuchs's Theory of Skating the School Figures . 140 
Eights, 141; Threes, 144; Loops, 145; Changes 
of Edge, 146; Counters, Rockers, 152; Brackets, 

155; Beaks, ...... 158 

Up to Date Form ...... 163 

Skating Without Skates .... 166 

Supplementary Hints, general and specific . . 173 
Eights, 174; Changes of Edge, 178; Threes, 180; 
Loops, 183; Brackets, 185; Counters, 188; Rock- 
ers, 190; Advanced Figures and Free Skating . 195 
Artistic Skating for Women (by Mrs. Syers) . 197 
Pair-Skating . . . . . . . 205 

The Judging of Pair-Skating .... 208 

Modern Pair-Skating Programs . . . 213 

Class Tests ....... 221 

Special Figures ...... 222 

The 879 illustrations comprise 94 half-tones of 
skaters, mostly in action; 626 diagrams of skating move- 
ments, mostly from actual prints; and 159 outline trac- 
ings from instantaneous photographs of skaters in action. 


General Introduction on National Styles and 
Requirements. What \ is expected of the best 
Skaters, and how competitions are conducted. 
Official Schedules. The development of the art 
of Skating at home and abroad up to the pres- 
ent day. History and literature of the art. 

HE best and quickest way to learn to skate is 
to imitate the best skafers. But good models 
are not always at hand. Fortunately, the 
skating books of the present day are so good 
that it is quite possible to learn from them, 
provided the reader has interest enough to 
take a little pains beforehand, and practical experience 
enough to interpret the diagrams and figures correctly. 
The diagram of a skating movement is only the record left 
on the ice by the skate; the position of the skater's head, 
shoulders, and arms, and the functions of his hips, knees, 
ankles, and unemployed leg, in making the mark, are most- 
ly unrecorded; yet any one of these elements may be said 
to be more important than the marking foot itself. The 
inadequacy of a single instantaneous photograph to repro- 
duce motion is only too obvious when we recall the almost 
impossible, awkward positions revealed by single instan- 
taneous snaps at a running horse or a jumping athlete. A 
series of biograph views, perhaps, would be more adequate. 
But if the reader will only see with his mind's eye, he will 
find the diagrams and figures of this little book, with the 
accompanying descriptions, a practical, serviceable substi- 
tute for the living instructor. 

The first step, then, for the beginner, is to learn to 
look intelligently at the diagram and see what is going on 
above it, — to look at the figure of a skater in action and 
see the movements just preceding and just following the 
one depicted. Otherwise, the chief difficulty of all begin- 
ners will not be relieved; for all beginners, with or without 
diagrams, concentrate too much attention upon the feet, 
with the usual result that ankles, which have danced all 
night and played golf and tennis or climbed mountains all 
day without tiring, are after five minutes' skating de- 
clared "weak!" Now, figure skating, like golf, requires 
not so much exceptional strength, as correct form in the 
expenditure of moderate force. Golf is not easy or attract- 
ive to a beginner who takes the first clubs he sees that are 
not too long or too heavy, grips them hard, and hammers 

at the ball with all his might, ignoring all other conditions. 
It is not surprising that figure-skating, too, seems difficult 
and discouraging to one who puts on skates often too long 
and too heavy, and chosen with no regard for the more 
important consideration of curve of blade and sidewise ad- 
justment; and who then, unheeding the position of head, 
shoulders, arms, or knees, tries to skate entirely with his 
feet. No wonder the over-worked ankles seem weak! 
The fiction of weak ankles, however, will disappear, when 
this method of skating is as unrecognizable as this method 
of golf playing. When the performer on the ice pays as 
much attention to the selection of his skates as to the 
selection of his clubs, and pays as much attention on the 
ice to his shoulders, arms, and unemployed leg as he pays 
on the links to his stance, to his grip, and to his follow, he 
may soon enjoy as keen satisfaction from the ease and 
accuracy of his curves and turns on his skates as from the 
right-sounding stroke of his club and the unerring flight of 
his golf-ball, — and what is more, do all the flying himself! 
The object of this chapter is to give the essentials of 
"correct form" in the official statements of the best 
authorities, as preparation for the efficient use of the dia- 
grams and illustrations that follow. See, also, pp. 163, fl". 

There are two distinct schools of skating, — the British 
and the American, or Continental. Figure-skating to an 
Englishman has, until within a few years, always meant 
skating large, bold curves and turns to a center in combi- 
nation with other skaters. Consequently, in order that 
the combination might be made possible by all skating 
alike, his rules have been strict and uniform: that the 
skating might be large, the position of his body has been 
erect and his knees straight; that danger at the center 
might be avoided and a true balance be attained, his 
unemployed foot has not been allowed to swing. Figure- 
skating to an American means making curves and turns, 
both large and small, generally by himself, cutting loops, 
cross-cuts, beaks, pig's ears, and a variety of other designs, 
with free-swinging arms and unemployed foot, with no 
restrictions upon his individual freedom, grace and ease of 
motion being largely a matter of personal taste or disposi- 

"It is probably true that the extreme of either style is 
incorrect. The most difficult movements, requiring an 
extraordinary amount of skill and sustained power, can be 
executed with grace, as well as facility, in the non-British 
style. Equally true is it that the extreme British style 
may lend to stiffness of action, and a sort of poker ele- 
gance which is the reverse of graceful."* 

*Dr. M. S. Monier-Williams in Meagher's Figure and Fancy 
Skating (1895), p. 26. 


When one sees a skater like Mr. Evans of the Boston 
Skating Club — American champion, 1896 — who is al- 
ways on his balance, who knows just what each part of 
his body is contributing, and ought to contribute, to the 
prosperity of the figure he is skating, whose movements 
are easy, graceful, steady — not vigorous, though under 
perfect control; and when one sees a skater like Mr. 
Bacon of the Cambridge Skating Club — American cham- 
pion, 1893 — who in his field-skating is almost never on 
his balance, whose movements are vigorous and rapid, 
whose arms and unemployed leg swing with rhythmic 
precision, who can spin like a top and fly like a bird, yet 
can hardly tell you how he does it all — though he, too, 
has perfect control of his edge — one sees the balance style 
and the swing style admirably adapted to the American 
conditions of small curve skating. Few can attain the 
success of these proficients, but both will tell you, which- 
ever style you prefer, that the quickest and surest road 
to it is to begin by acquiring a good balance. 

The secret of all good skating, then, is balance. Since the 
English style, even for beginners in the American style, is 
the very best of preliminary practice for attaining a good 
balance, it may be well to give first the rules for the Eng- 
lish style as laid down recently by an advocate of its 
strictest school. (Cf. also E. F. Benson's English Figure 
Skating, 1908, p. 28.) 


1 . The unemployed leg must be kept absolutely straight. 
No bend in the knee is to be allowed, whether the skater 
is traveling on an edge or making a turn. 

2. The unemployed leg must touch the employed* The 
toe of the foot should be turned outwards and upwards as 

far as is comfortable, in a direction 
at right angles to the employed foot. 
Figs. 1, 2. 

3, 4. The body and head must 
be held quite erect, the shoulders be- 
ing held well back. There must be 
an effort at first to keep quite upright, 
and in fighting against an inclina- 
tion to lean forwards, the shoulders 
will have to be very consciously 
stiffened and held back. This in the 
elementary stages does give an idea 
2-British of super-rigidity, but once properly 2 _British 

L o f acquired, it feels comfortable and L F 

Engadinelooks natural — just as one expects aEngadine 

*This is the extreme position of the Swiss "Flick and Jam" 

School. Londoners allow the unemployed to stray a little 

and point the toes down and out. "In the above position, 



man to walk with an upright carriage of the body, not 
leaning forward with bent shoulders and downcast head. 

5. The arms should hang easily by the side of the body, 
with the elbows turned in. The beginner presents the 
appearance of those toy wooden figures — you pull the 
string, and the figure jerks its arms and legs — and it is 
only by constant practice and by remembering to turn the 
elbows in, that the ugly wooden effect can be avoided. 

The advantage of assuming position from these rules is 
that the centre of gravity of the body always remains in a 
vertical line over the centre of the skate, and then a very 
slight forward or backward inclination of the whole body 
is sufficient to enable the skate to clear the ice and form 
the turn without a scrape. It has been much debated 
whether the unemployed foot may not be allowed to sepa- 
rate from the employed and lie behind it. But this would 
only tend to draw the centre of gravity of the body back- 
wards, which effect would have to be counteracted either 
by bending the knee or by waving the arms in the air as a 
counterbalancing power. 

The rules of American and Continental skating are thus 
directly opposed to those of English. The American 
bends his knee as deliberately as the Englishman straight- 
ens his; he lets tHe unemployed leg hang away from the 
employed; and he uses his arms to aid or counter-balance 
this strayed foot. Consequently, the body does not 
assume an upright position. It would seem that this 
method would make the art of skating more easy: a turn 
can be effected by a twist of the unemployed foot, and a 
corresponding swing of the arms in the required direction. 
Pace can also be gained by this swing; but it also has the 
effect of throwing the skater hard on, to the new edge, 
thereby perforce keeping his curves small. 

In order, therefore, to keep his skating large and bold 
in the true English style, in which the use of the unem- 
ployed leg is not permissible, the English skater has to 
resort to the combined figure in order to get pleasure him- 
self or to furnish pleasure to others. Here is his opportu- 
nity to display his individual skill and his skill in adapting 

when a turn is executed, a considerable muscular effort is 
required of the employed foot, which is jerked round sharply 
with a 'click.' The aim, too, of the skater from the Engadine 
being to skate all his curves of extra large size and at extra 
high speed, the bending of the body at the moment of striking 
is exaggerated, and a decided stamp to gain force is apparent. 
These pecularities produce a general effect which is the very 
reverse of graceful, and, when carried to their logical extreme, 
must be held to justify the reproach that the ultra-British style 
of skating is stilted, wooden, and ungraceful." — Monicr-Wil- 
liams, Figure Skating, 1898, p. 63. Cf., however, George Wood, 
in Winter Sports Review, Jan., 191 2. 


himself to the powers of others. Here, too, is his oppor- 
tunity for fast and bold skating, with a new and vivid joy 
gained from some slight element of danger other than that 
to which he is accustomed. The skaters together now gain 
what they lacked above: they have become interesting 

3 — "Frank Swift" (Wm. H. Bishop), Champion 
of America, 1868 

and give pleasure to the onlooker. Even one who knows 
nothing of the art can appreciate a good combined figure. 
The strength, boldness, smoothness were there before, but 
now all skate with an almost machine-like regularity at 
the call of one; and that they should r c able to make 


such designs, intricate in themselves, in such harmony, 
from an apparently meaningless call, seems little short of 


Freedom from restrictions has been the cardinal princi- 
ple of the promoters of American skating. The first and 
only original American text-book (1868) bears the name 
of "Frank Swift," Wm. H. Bishop, champion of Amer- 
ica, 1868, but was written by Marvin R. Clark, who was 
not a skater. His rules for correct form, probably reflect 
adequately the usage of his time. 

"The body should be erect, but yielding, and kept gen- 
erally square to the front; but the skater should remem- 
ber that 'the lines of business are straight, while those of 
pleasure are curves.'' The body, therefore, should be easy 
and pliable, with no degree of stiffness, leaning slightly 
forward. An air of lightness should pervade every motion. 

"The head should be carried upright, inclining back- 
ward, and easy in any position, the skater always remem- 
bering our important caution 1 — never look down at the 


"The shoulders must be kept slightly back of the breast 
and moderately low, not forced, but easy in the position 
(whatever that means). 

"The legs should not be stiff. Nothing so effectu- 
ally destroys the beauty and gracefulness of the move- 
ment as stiffness of the limbs; and, as it gives a rigidity 
to the body, it as not only unbecoming, but materially 
disadvantageous. .■■"■• 

" The knee of the performing- leg should be slightly bent. 
This rule is absolute. 

"The arms must hang loosely at the side, the elbows 
slightly bent, the hands naturally facing the body, the 
fingers neither imitating the tines of a fork, nor clutched 
as if with a spasm, but a little bent and slightly separated." 

The full-front inclining body, the bent knee, and swing- 
ing unemployed leg, are characteristics of the same skat- 
ing to-day, the nearest approach to a formal description 
of which is that by the Canadian professional, Meagher 
(1895), whose indebtedness to Clark is obvious: 

"A position of ease, natural, unassumed, and especially 
devoid of affectation, is essential. The body should be 
held naturally erect, yet yielding, and with the chest well 
expanded. All the members of the body should work in 
unison, in an easy and pliable manner, with no stiffness, 
and an air of lightness should pervade every motion, as 

*Adapted from Geo. Wood, "Combined Skating," London, 


a constrained or forced motion destroys harmony, and 
gives pain to the spectator. Whatever position the head 
is thrown into while the skater is executing different move- 
ments, it should fall into position naturally, never too 
stiffly. It should incline as if by intuition in a continued 
graceful motion, without apparent effort or volition. The 
shoulders should always be kept well back, not forced, 
but in position. Stiffness of the limbs gives a rigidity to 
the body which is unbecoming and naturally disadvan- 
tageous. A pliability of form is absolutely necessary to 
the acquirement of the different movements executed on 

"The 'unemployed' leg as it is usually termed, which 
I may add is generally employed more than the other,* 
should always be more or less bent, according to the move- 
ment; and should never be held with the knee perfectly 
straight like a crowbar. Unless there is a slight bend of 
the knee, the skater has an ungainly appearance. . . . 
If I personally were asked the question how the body 
should be held while skating, I should say, 'I live while I 
skate; I feel every motion; all the muscles speak and 
answer me, as it were. I talk with my arms, my shoulders, 
with all my limbs, and think of poetry, of music— of 
flying, if you will.' " (M. 29-31.) 

"Remember that the head rules the feet. Remember 
that when striking out on any edge you must feel that you 
are perfectly keen on that edge, until it is changed to an- 
other. Remember that it is allowable to look down at 
the feet in executing certain figures 'to place,' but that 
in cutting figures 'in field' it is absolutely unnecessary, in 
fact, detrimental. Remember not to skate your move- 
ments too hurriedly, as you are not skating against time, 
and speed is certainly the greatest enemy of grace." (M. 

P- 27.) 

"The grand curves are admirable," says Mr. Eugene 
B. Cook, than whom no one can speak on American 
skating with more authority, "and very small ones may 
be exquisite. As in music the range is from pianissimo to 
fortissimo, and from largo to prestissimo, so in artistic 
skating the greatest master is one who can perform his fig- 
ures in miniature or of the grandest size, and who can 
show the gentlest grace or the most rapid vigor, at will. 
Over-legislation results in tyranny. Cast-iron rules are 
dangerous, and may lead to misjudgment of a master who 
knows when they should be laid aside. Rigidity is not one 
of the attributes of grace, neither is the flexibility of the 
'slapjack.' There is a natural sympathy between the legs 
and arms, and grace will best be reached without shackles. 

*Swift and Clark's term is "balance foot." 

My ideal of skating is that it should embrace everything 
that is good. Hampering fetters and narrowness should 
be sedulously avoided. The devotees of the art of skating 
should not put shackles upon it, but work to develop the 
Skating of the Future." 

A most interesting stage in the history of skating is 
reached this year in the coming together of these two 
schools. Although figure-skating is roughly two hundred 
and fifty years old, its life in its modern form as above 
outlined has been only about forty: of which the first 
decade, 1860-70, was largely a period of discovery and 
invention; the last, 1 890-1900, one of perfection of organ- 
ization and exposition. The keenest analysis and the most 
lucid exposition have been contributed by the English, — 
their best skaters have been university men and most 
clear writers. The Swedes and the Austrians have 
recorded their contributions in well illustrated books. 
American skaters, too, have done much for the art in 
these last forty years; but the black and white record of 
it has been mostly in white marks on black ice. The 
history of American skating is "writ in water." A com- 
plete history of figure skating, therefore, is unattainable, 
but the interesting situation of the year 1900 will be better 
appreciated, if we trace, very briefly the development to 
the present time of the several standards of excellence 
in the three great skating countries. 

1660 Figure skating was introduced into England by 
royalist exiles returning at the time of the Restora- 
tion from Holland, whence they brought the Dutch roll. 
Skating was seen for the first time by the diarists, Pepys 
1711 and Evelyn, in December, 1662; and as late as 171 1 
(in the time of the Tatler and the Spectator), Swift 
asked Stella if she knew what "skaits" were. The Edin- 
1742-72 kurgh Skating Club was founded in I74 2 > or 
perhaps earlier; but not until 1772 is there any 
literary record of the art. Robert Jones' Treatise on Skat- 
ing of that year contains the first mention of ok three, of 
8, of and if Spread Eagle, ob Roll, the Serpentine, and 
combined figures without turns. By this time, the Ameri- 
cans had taken up the art. Benjamin West, the painter, 
was a skilful skater.* "One day, having crossed the ocean, 
he was skating in the Serpentine and amazing Londoners 
by the grace and rapidity of his motions." He was recog- 

*Dunlap, History of the Arts of Design in the U. S., A'. Y, t 
1834, vol. 1, pp. 60, 61. Quoted by Lewis, p. 12. 


nized by Col. Howe — afterward Gen. Howe in the colonial 
war — whom he had met on the. ice in Philadelphia. " 'I 
am glad to see you,' said Howe, 'and not the less so that 
you come in good time to vindicate my praises of Ameri- 
can skating.' He called to him Lord Spencer Hamilton, 
and some of the Cavendishes, to whom he introduced 
West as one of the Philadelphia prodigies, and requested 
him to show them what was called 'The Salute.' He per- 
formed his feat so much to their satisfaction that they 
went away, spreading over London the praises of the 
American skater. Nor was the considerate Quaker," says 
the historian, "insensible to the value of such commenda- 
tions; he continued to frequent the Serpentine and gratify 
large crowds by cutting 'The Philadelphia Salute.' Many 
to their praise of his skating added panegyrics on his pro- 
fessional skill; and not a few, to vindicate their applause, 
followed him to his easel, and 
sat for their portraits." 

"Though Philadelphians have 
never reduced skating to rules 
like' Londoners," says Graydon, 
in his Memoirs,* "nor connected 
it with their business like Dutch- 
men, I will yet hazard the opin- 
ion that they are the best and 
most elegant skaters in the 
world;" and he had seen "New 
England skaters, Old England 
4-English rib Skaters, and Holland Skaters." 
1834 This is a true characteristic 

of London skaters; in the year 
after the "Skating Club" was formed (1830), The 
Skater's Manual, by a member (London, 183 1), 
formulated rules and printed thirteen combined 
figures. That the style, however, was more like our 
own early skating than the later stiff English style, the 
tracingsf from Walker's Manly Exercises (London, 
1834) will show, Figs. 4, 5. By 1852, however, the 
forms and rules were becoming more rigid {The Art 
of Skating, by "Cyclos" — George Anderson, presi- 
dent of the Glasgow Skating Club — 1852, second 
edition 1868); and in 1869, the modern English 
style was practically fixed by the important publi- 
cation of Vandervell and Wltham's System of 
Figure Skating. In the ten years preceding (1859-1868), 
modern American skating (page 22) had been developed 
and carried to Canada and Europe. 

*Graydon, Alex: Memoirs of a Life, Chiefly Passed in Penn- 
sylvania, etc. Harrisburg, 181 1. Quoted by Lewis, p. 12. 
tMade for us by Edgar Syers, Esq., London. 


5-English lob 






Approximate dates can now be given to the first perfor- 
mance of familiar movements. Counter-rocking turns 

I860 M were ^ rst s ^ atec ^ by M n Vandervell in 1860-61; 
and, together with rockers, were independently- 
discovered by Mr. E. .B. Cook in 1863-5, rockers afterward 
investigated and first described and named in 
1 1878-81 by Mr. Pidgeon and Mr. Monier- 

Williams at Oxford. Cupid's Bow and the forced curve 
were first described in 1868. In 1880 Mr. 
Maxwell Witham skated the first bracket. In 
1 88 1 the Continental development of American 
skating, carried to Europe by Jackson Haines in 
1864, was expounded in the first edition of Spuren 
auf dem Eise, (Vienna). In 1883 Monier-Williams 
published the first edition of Combined Skating; and 
in 1 89 1 the final revised rules for combined skating 
were agreed upon by the English skating clubs. In 
Dec, 1892, The Youth's Companion, Boston, pub- 
lished four systematic articles on figure skating for boys 
and girls, to the illustrations of which, thanks to the pub- 
lishers, we are indebted for some of our Cuts. The rapid 
development of skating and skating literature in the last 
ten years is shown most briefly and effectively by the fol- 
lowing list of titles, with the abbreviations by which we 
shall refer to them. 


Skating Theory and Practice. 

D.E. 1 89 1. Deutscher Eissport, Berlin, the organ of the 
I. S. U., issued weekly from Oct. to Apr. Contains all 
the fixtures and news of European and English skating. 

SpE. 1892. Spuren auf dem Eise, second edition, Vienna, 
Alfred Holder, 8vo, pp. 350, M. 7, 50 pf. A thorough 
exposition of the Continental style, copiously illustrated 

S.C. 1892. Figure Skating, Simple and Combined, 
Monier-Williams and others, second edition, London, 
Macmillan & Co., small 8vo, round corners, pp. 322, 
#1.25. Strictly English. Diagrams of over 150 
combined movements. 

B. 1892. The Badminton Library, Figure Skating, by 
T. Maxwell Witham, London, Longmans & Co., 
8vo, pp. 464, #3.50. The most systematic exposition 
of the English system. 

M. 1895. Figure and Fancy Skating, George A. 
Meagher, London, Bliss, Sands & Foster, 8vo, pp. 
150, $1.50. Canadian style. 

1895. Skating and the Philadelphia Skating Club, 
John F. Lewis, printed for the Club, Philadelphia, 1895. 
Skating Gossip, T. Maxwell Witham, Badminton 
Magazine, Dec. 1895, vol. i, p. 608. 


H. 1896. Kuttstfertigkeit im E\slaufcn y iifth edition, 

Robert Holletschek, Troppau, Buchholz, small square, 

limp, pp. 282, M. 1, 70 pi. Tlie most systematic 
exposition of Continental skating, with over 1000 dia- 
grams of Austrian, Swedish, and Russian figures. 

1896. Figure Skating, Hon. Algernon Grosvenor, 
New Review, London, Feb. 1896. 

H-H. 1896. Hand-in-Hand Skating, N. G. Thomp- 
son iSc L. Caiman, London, Longmans & Co., small 
square, round corners, limp. pp. 259, 6/-. Over 200 
illustrations of pairs skating hand in hand. 

R. 1897. The "Oval" Series, Figure Skating, by Ar- 
chibald Read, London, Routledge, 8vo, pp. 142, 2/-. 
Anglo-Swiss School. 

MxW. 1897. A System of Figure Skating, T. Maxwell 
Witham, fifth edition, London, Cox, 8vo, pp. 310, 
boards, 2/-. Liberal English. Novel illustrations of 
pairs skating hand in hand. 

1897. Skating on Artificial Ice, Mrs. Walter Creyke, 
Nineteenth Century, March 1897, p. 475. 

M-W. 1898. Figure Skating, M. S. F. Monier-Wil- 
liams, vol. vii, Isthmian Library, London, A. D. Inness 
8vo, pp. 316, 5/-. Most liberal English style. Best 
exposition of Continental skating in English, to date. 

W. 1899. Combined Figure Skating, George Wood, 
London, F. E. Robinson, thin, 8vo, pp. 166, 2/-. 
Strictest Swiss-English (Davos). 

I.S.U. 1899. International Skating Union, Official 
Skating Program, Stockholm. Issued every two years. 

N.S.A. 1900. National Skating Association of Great 
Britain, Official Handbook of the Departmental Com- 
mittee for Figure Skating, London. In effect Oct. 1900. 
- 1900. Skating in Figures, Boston Herald, Feb. 26, 
1900, an illustrated article explaining how to skate the 
Cambridge Skating Club's Figure Skating Tests. 

History and Bibliography 

1897. On the Outside Edge, Diversions in the History 
of Skating, Dr. G. Herbert Fowler, London, H. Cox, 
small i6mo, pp. 72, 2/6. 

1898. A Bibliography of Skating, F. W. Foster, Lon- 
don, B. W. Warhurst, Chelsea, 8vo, 5/-. 

1899. Figure Skating Competitions. Edgar Syers, Bad- 
minton Magazine, Jan. 1899,— an interesting account 
of European contests and skaters. 

1899. Style in Skating, George Wood, London Field, 
Nov. 11, 1899. An excellent exposition of the differ- 
ences between English and Continental skating and 



1900 — The Principle of Skating Turns and Edges -and 
Striking, H. C. Lowther; London, H. Cox. 1/0 each. 

1901 — The Figure Skate, H. E. Vandervell; London, 
Straker Bros. Proves parallel edge blade, 6 ft. rock, best. 

1902 — Combined Figure Skating, H. C. Lowther; 
London, H. Cox. 1 Shilling. 

l 9°3 — E>er Eislauf in Kunsthistoricher Darstellung, 
G. Helfrich; St. Petersburg Skating Club. Reproduction 
of most interesting skating pictures. 

1904 — The International Style of Figure Skating, Geo. 
H. Browne; Springfield, Barney & Berry. Substantially, 
pp. 125-160 of this book. 

Combined Hand in Hand Figure Skating, N. G. Thomp- 
son, F. S. Cannan, Viscount Doneraile; London, Long- 
mans & Co. 2 / 6. 

!905 — Figure Skating, H. R. Yglesias; London, G. 
Routledge. International Style. 

The Poetry of Skating, Edgar Wood Syers; London, 
Watts & Co. A beautifully printed and illustrated 

1906 — The Public Schools Winter Sports Club Year 
Book; London, H. Marshall. Since 1910, Alpine Sports 
Club. 1/0. Annuals of 100-200 pages, fully illustrated, 
describing, with more than usual literary excellence, 
winter life in the Swiss resorts. 

The Winter Sports Annual, ed. E. Wroughton; London, 
Richardson & Wroughton. 2./0. 

Die Dame auf Schlittschuhen, G. Helfrich, Berlin, iM. 

1907 — Das Kunstlaufen auf dem Eise, Ulrich Salchow; 
Leipzig, Grethlein & Co. German translation of the 
Swedish Handbok i Konstakning pa Skridskor. 

Les Sports d'Hiver, ed. L. Magnus; Paris. Weekly 
through the winter; bi-weekly through the summer. 

Falsing on the Ice, Ernest Law; London, Hugh Rees. 

1908 — Technik des Kunsteislaufens, Dr. Dannenberg; 
Berlin, F. Manning. 1 Mark. Concise and clear. 

Das Pqar und Gruppenlaufen, G. Helfrich; Berlin, 
F. Fontane. 1 Mark. 

The Book of Winter Sports, E. and M. Syers; London, 
E.Arnold. 336 pp. $$. Fully illustrated. 

English Figure Skating, E. F. Benson; London, G. Bell 
& Sons, 8vo. pp. 261. 7/6. Adequately illustrated. 

iqog—Praktische Winke fur Kunsteislaufer, G. Helfrich ; 
Berlin, F. Fontane, 2d. edition. 1 Mark. 


ioio Figure Skating in the International Style, N. A. 
Panin; St. Petersburg, Suworin. Large sq. 8vo. 340 pp., 
profusely illustrated; not yet translated from the Russian. 

The New Skatingi Geo. H. Browne; Cambridge, printed 
for the author. 56 pp., for the pocket, 50c. 

The Art of Skating, Irving Brokaw, London & N. V. 
4 to. pp. 158, $5. Out of print. 

The Internationa/ Skater/ Handbook on Ice and Roller 
Skating; Chicago, Western Skating Assoc. Newspapery 
accounts of American Skaters, but useful for records. 

Dancing on Skates, Col. H..V. Kent, R. E.; Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, R. Ward & Sons, 32pp. 1 o. Advocates the 
circular rather than the serpentine waltz. 

Kunstfertigkeit im F.islaufen, R. Holletschek, Troppau, 
7th ed. enlarged with many recent pair-skating programs. 

191 1 — The Cardinal Positions and Movements in the 
International School-Figures, on Separate Cards by Geo. 
H. Browne; Cambridge, Harvard Cooperative Soc. 75c. 
Revised 2d edition, soon, by Barney & Berry. 

Les Sports d'Hiver, par L. Magnus et Renaud de la 
Fregeoliere. Premiere partie, La Patinage, par L. Magnus; 
Paris, Pierre Lafitte et Cie. 347 pp. 

A Winter Sport Book, with clever illustrations by 
Reginald Cleaver, an intro. by Rev. Hon. Edw. Lyttle- 
ton, M.A., and an admirable history of modern Winter 
Sport in Switzerland by the father of it, Sir. H. Lunn; 
London, A. & C. Black, 62 pp., and 47 full page illustra- 
tions. $1.50. 

The Winter Sports Review, Ed. E. C. Richardson; Lon- 
don, Richardson & Wroughton. Organ of the Winter 
Sports Club, — the best skating magazine in English. 

Das Eisbuchlein der Jugend. Eine lehrreiche frdh- 
liche Anleitung fur Schlittschulaiifer, G. Helfrich; Berlin, 
F. Fontane. 58 pp. 1 M. 

19 1 2 — Der Moderne Winter Sport, Carl J. Lutter; Leip- 
zig. J. J. Weber. 2d ed. 

Manuel de Patinage, U. Salchow, edition Les Sports 
d'Hiver. French translation of Swedish Handbok. 3 fr. 

La Patinage a tr avers les Ages, L. Magnus; Paris. 3 fr- 
Interesting reproductions of old skating pictures. 

A Skating Primer, Geo. H. Browne; Springfield, 
Barney & Berry. 72 pp. fully illustrated. 25c. 

I 9 I 3 — The Art of Skating, I. Brokaw, N. Y., Spalding, 
pp. 201, 25c. and $1. New free- and pair-skating diagrams. 

A Handbook of Figure Skating, Geo. H. Browne; 
Springfield, Barney & Berry. 4th edition, revised and 
enlarged, new plates, pp. 161-224 entirely new. #1.00. 



Figure skating on this side of the water began in earnest, 
not as the British naturally think in Canada, but in a 
region less favored by nature, where even now artificial ice 
offers better facilities for practice than in New England or 
in any other part of the U. S. A. except N.Y., Pittsburg, 
Cleveland, Chicago, Boston, and Syracuse. The Philadel- 
1840 *^ a Skating Club was founded in 1849, with head- 
quarters on the Schuylkill River; and in the fifties, 
through its proficients Col. Page, Peter Weaver, the Van 
Hook brothers, and others, set the pace which Canada and 
the Continent afterward took up. In Boston, on the South 
Bay and over what is now the Back Bay district, E. H. 
Barney, John Berry, C. E. Fuller, and his cousin Wm. H. 
Fuller, Blondin, the tight rope walker, J. T. Ryan, J. H. 
Murch, G. W. Lord, and others, developed another school 
of American skating, just before the Civil War. 

In 1858-9, Boston and Philadelphia skaters in- 
troduced figure skating into New York, Mr. Pin- 
chon of the Philadelphia club bringing the first grapevine; 
and from Boston, E. H. Barney his famous 8, (fig. 89), 
the Fullers, Chas. E. and Wm. H., spins, rolls, and acro- 
batic feats, and Jos. H. Murch the two foot whirls, which 
he originated, etc. W. H. Cheesman skated the first one 
foot 8 in 1862; Adam Baudoine the first one foot 8 
with loop in 1864. About this time, or earlier? 
were skated the figures subsequently named Mohawks, 
Choctaws and Cross-cuts, (Edw. Brady, E. B. Cook), 
Pirouettes, of to of (John Martin), ob (E. B. Cook), 
Ringlet Spins, (E. B. Cook, Jackson Haines), Pivot-Cir- 
cling (E. B. Cook), Heel and Toe Movements (Adam Bau- 
doine, Callie Curtis, E.B.Cook.) In 1863 the 
New York Skating Club was organized; and the 
proficiency in the art developed so rapidly, with the rapid 
development of the new club skate and the example of 
such skaters as Andrew J. Dupignac, Pres. N. Y. Club, 
Chas. W. Jenkins, Alex. Macmillan, John Powers, cham- 
pion of the St. Lawrence, Eugene W. Pratt, champion of 
the Northwest, J. C. Mead, John Engler, E. T. Goodrich, 
Callie Curtis and W. H. Bishop ("Frank Swift,")— not 
to mention Miss Henrietta Bedell, Miss Nellie Dean, the 
Misses Tobey, and Miss Carrie Augusta Moore, — that 
rinks were opened in Brooklyn, Buffalo, Jersey City, Pitts- 
burg, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Chicago, and St. Louis; and 
in 1868 the first American congress met at Pitts- 
1868 burg and adopted Mr. Cook's N. Y. Skating Club 
program of twenty-five numbers for the guidance of 
skaters and a standard for competitions. Callie Curtis 
won the $500 championship medal. In 1864-5 Jackson 


Mr. E. H. Barney in a Cross Loop Eight, at his home, 
Forest Park, Springfield, Mass., December, 1898. 

"Resembling strong youth in his middle age." 

—-Shakespeare, Sonnet, 7, 6. 

Col. C. E. Fuller E. B. Cook, Esq. "Frank Swift" 
On the Board of Judges, Ice Palace, N. Y., Feb., 1896 

"Young in limbs, in judgment old." — Shakespeare M. V. 
2, 7, 7i. 

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Haines, in 1865 Wm. H. Fuller, (p. 166), in 1869-70 Curtis, 
Goodrich, and Alfred Moe carried the American style to 
Europe. Under the inspiration of a younger generation of 
skaters (like Edw. W. Burr, James B. Story — champion 
1879,— T. A. Williams, G. D. Phillips, S. J. Montgomery, 
together with some of the older men like E. B. Cook and 
the late *W. B. Curtis), the National Amateur Skating 
Association of the United States was formed in 
1886; under the inspiration of Louis Rubenstein 
(Canadian champion 1878-89, and American champion 
1888-89, world's champion 1890), the Amateur Skating 
Association of Canada was formed in 1888; and 
through the encouragement of Col. C. E. Fuller of 
the Boston Skating Club, who has been at the front of all 
skating improvements in New England for forty years, the 
New England Skating Association was founded in 
1889, with the Colonel for its president. Represen- 
tatives of these organizations met in New York in 
Feb. 1 89 1, and adopted the following 


The object of this program is to set forth the movements 
of figure-skating so as best to test the proficiency of skaters 
and in an order that will economize the strength of the 
contestants. The movements are^mmged under compre- 
hensive, fundamental heads, designed to include every- 
thing appertaining to the art. It is to be understood that 
whenever practicable all movements are to be executed 
both forward and backward, on right foot and on left, 
in field and to place. (See pp. 136, 159, Revision of 1902.) 

1. Plain forward and backward skating in various 

2. Outside edge roll forward. 

3. Outside edge roll backward. 

4. Inside edge roll forward, in field and eights, single 
and double circle. 

5. Inside edge roll backward, in field and eights, single 
and double circle. 

6. Figure eight on one foot forward, single and double 

7. Figure eight on one foot backward, single and dou- 
ble circle. 

8. Cross roll forward, in field and eights, single and 
double circle. 

9. Cross roll backward,- in field and eights, single and 
double circle. f, 

10. Change of edge roll forward, beginning on outside 
and on inside edge. 

11. Change of edge roll backward, beginning on out- 
side and on inside edge. 


12. Spread eagle on inside and outside edges. 

13. Curved angles — threes: single, double, chain and 
flying, beginning on inside and on outside edge. 

14. Curved angles — rocking turns from outside edge 
to outside edge, and from inside edge to inside edge, for- 
ward and backward. 

15. Curved angles — cross-cuts or anvils. 

16. Grapevines, including Philadelphia "twist." 

17. Toe and heel movements, embracing pivot cir- 
cling, toe spins (pirouettes), and movements on both toes. 

18. Single and double flat-foot spins, cross-foot and 
two-foot whirls. 

19. (a) Serpentines on one foot and on both feet; (b) 
Change of edge, single and double. 

20. Loops and ringlets on inside and outside edges, 
single and in combination. 

21. Display of complex movements, at the option of 
the contestant. 

22. Specialties, embracing original and peculiar move- 

If limited as to time, the judges may select what is 
thought best. 

This schedule is intended as a guide, as well to skaters 
as to judges, who should continually bear in mind that 
grace is the most desi^ble attribute of artistic skating. 

In deciding the relative merits of competitors, special 
attention will be given to grace and ease of position, accu- 
racy in skating to place, and ability to use both feet 
equally well. 


Only since March, 1896, have British skaters held com- 
petitions in their combined figure-skating between teams 
of four skaters representing properly constituted skating 
clubs. Since 1881, however, individual skaters have been 
encouraged by the National Association to skate for 
bronze, silver, and gold badges, offered to winners of 
three official tests. Over eighteen hundred such badges 
have been given. The quality of performance may be 
inferred from the requirements, here printed for the first 
time in this country (Revision of December, 19 12). 

Third-Class Figure-Skating Test 

The judges will require the test to be skated in good 
form, of which the essentials are (1) upright carriage, (2) 
the head erect, facing towards the direction of progress, 
(3) the body held sideways, (4) the employed leg straight, 
(5) the unemployed foot held close to and not in front of 
the employed foot, (6) the elbows kept near to the body, 
(7) the stroke taken from the side of the blade of the 


skate and not from the toe, (8) the candidate must be 
able to hold the edge, both when skating the edges and 
after the turn, without rotating the body. 

(a) ROF and LOF 3- turn; each curve 15 feet at least. 

(b) The four edges on each foot alternately for as long 
as the judges shall require, the length of the curve being 
at least 15 feet on the f edges and 10 feet on the b edges. 

(c) OF Eight; diameter of each circle being 8 feet at least, 
to be skated three times without pause. 

Second-Class Figure- Skating Test 

No candidate can be judged for this test unless he has 
previously passed the Third-class Test. The whole of 
this test must be skated on the same occasion and before 
two of the appointed judges, and the candidate must 
satisfy both judges, who will require all turns to be clean. 
When a stroke is taken in a combined figure from outside 
back to outside back, the feet must be crossed. In the 
following list of figures, the word "three" means a 3-turn. 

(a) A set of combined figures skated with another skater, 
who will be selected by the judges, introducing the 
following calls in such order and with such repetitions 
as the judges may direct. 

1 Forward three meet. 2 Once back — and forward 
meet. 3 Once back — and forward three meet. 4 Twice 
back off meet — and forward three meet. 5 Twice back 
meet — and back — and forward three meet. 

(b) The judges shall call three "unseen" figures of quite 
simple character, in order to test the candidates' 
knowledge of calls and power of placing figures upon 
the ice. These shall be skated alone. 

(c) The following edges on each foot alternately for as 

long as the judges shall require; namely, 

1 Inside back, each curve being 20 feet at least. 

2 Cross ob, each curve being 12 feet at least. 

(d) The following figures skated on each foot; namely, 

1 Forward inside three, the length of each curve 
being 40 feet at least — R. and L. 
2. Forward outside three, the length of each curve 
being 50 feet at least — R. and L. 

(e) The following figures skated to a centre on alternate 
feet without pause, three times on each foot; namely, 

1 IF three; each curve 15 feet at least. 

2 OF three; each curve 15 feet at least. 

3 IF two threes; each curve 10 feet at least. 

4 OF two threes; each curve 10 feet at least. 

5 OB two threes; each curve 10 feet at least. 


(f) i IF 0; each curve 30 feet at least, R. and L. 

2 OF 0; each curve 30 feet at least, R. and L. 

3 IB O; each curve 25 feet at least, R. and L. * 

4 OB, O; each curve 20 feet at least, R. and L. 

First- Class Figure- Skating Test 

Twelve prescribed figures skated with another skater, 
who will be selected by the judges. Cf . N. S. A. Handbook. 

Part II 

Not more than six or less than four "unseen" figures 
of moderate difficulty, in order to test the candidate's 
knowledge of calls and power of placing figures upon the 
ice. This unseen set must include rockers, counters, and 
brackets, and shall be skated by the candidate alone. 


No candidate shall be judged in Part II of this Section 
until he has passed in Part I. 

The judges may allow candidates any number of 
attempts at a given figure that they consider reasonable. 

Part I 

The turns, mohawks and choctaws of this part, must 
be placed close to and on the near side of an orange or 
other fixed point on the ice. They must all be skated on 
each foot to the satisfaction of the judges. 

The curve before and after the turn or change of foot 
must be 40 feet long at least. 
Threes, ob, ib; Rockers, Brackets, Counters, of, if, 

ob, if; Mohawks, Choctaws, of, if. 

Part II 

To pass in this part a candidate may select not more 
than one figure in each group, and must score 45 marks 
at least. A selection once made by a candidate must not 
be altered. 

No marks shall be scored in respect of any one-footed 
figure unless it is skated on each foot; and the number 
set against each figure represents the maximum that can 
be scored for that figure. 

A candidate shall not score for any figure on which he 
shall not have obtained at least half marks. 


In marking these figures the judges will take into con- 
sideration the general symmetry of the figure, and the 
approximate equality of corresponding curves. In each 


ob two threes, 4. 
ib two threes, 13. 

of two brackets, 6. 
if two brackets, 10. 
of bracket, three, 9. 

ob two brackets, 14. 
ib two brackets, 11. 
ob bracket, three, 16. 

figure the complete eight is to be skated three times with- 
out pause. The figures need not be begun from rest. 

In groups D and E the turns and choctaws respec- 
tively are to be made on the near side of the centre. 

The following turns are to be skated to a centre on 
alternate feet: 

Group A. 

of bracket, 6. 
if bracket, 4. 

Group B. 

if bracket, three, 5. 
of three, bracket, 4. 
if three, bracket, 12. 

Group C. 

ib bracket, three, 8. 
ob three, bracket, 5. 
ib three, bracket, 14. 

Group D (the turns at the centre). 
of rocker, 8. of counter, 8. 

if rocker, 4. if counter, 4. 

of and if centre choctaw, beginning on each foot, 4. 
of and if mohawk to a centre, beginning on each foot, 4. 


The turns and changes are to be made on the near side 
of fixed points determined by the candidate; the dis- 
tance between these, and the lengths of the first and last 
curves, are to be each not less than 50 feet beginning on 
forward edges, 35 feet beginning on back edges. 

Group E. 

of bracket, change, 5. 
if bracket, change, 4. 
of counter, change, 5. 
if counter, change, 3. 

Group F. 

ob rocker, change, 6. 
ib rocker, change, 8. 

Group G. 
ob bracket, change, 16. pB counter, change, 16. 

ib bracket, change, 8. ib counter, change, 8, 

of three, change, 2. 
if three, change, 3. 
of rocker, change, 3. 
if rocker, change, 3. 

ob three, change, 5. 
ib three, change, 8. 


Group H. 

Single, each foot leading, 2. Pennsylvania, 5 
Double forward, 3. Philadelphia, 6. 

Double backward, 3. 


8 LOF. 

— H.Grenan- 
der, Stroke 
lif to RIF 


In 1.891 The International Skating Union was formed 
by associations and skating clubs of Austria, Canada, 
Denmark, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, Holland, 
Hungary, Norway, Russia, Sweden and Switzerland; and 
at its third regular congress, in August, 1897, drew up the 
following rules for correct carriage and movement — with- 
in which rules the individuality of the skater receives free 
play and every consideration on the part of the judges:* 
"Upright carriage, not bent 
at the hips, but without being 
stiff; strong bending of the 
knee or body to be only mo- 
mentary (Fig. 8). Head up- 
right. Unemployed foot raised 
only a little from the ice, not 
dragging behind, with toe 
turned downward and back- 
ward (Fig. 9), bent a trifle at 
the knee, and generally held 
behind the employed foot; 
otherwise swinging freely, 
H. Grenander, anc j assisting the movement, ^ 

W °ion S I?!" 1 " bUt n0t hdd far aWa7 ' ArmS ' 
' hanging down easily without 

swinging, may, like the unemployed foot, be used to assist 
by their movement, but elbows or hands not to be raised 
far from the body, the latter never, if possible, above the 
waist. Fingers neither spread nor clinched. In general, 
everything violent, angular, or stiff in the action to be 
avoided; no endeavor to be violently expressed, but the 
impression is to be given that the execution of the figures 
requires no effort." 

Under the auspices and rules of the I. S. U., two great 
Continental figure-skating competitions are held each 
year: one for the championship of Europe, the other for 
the championship of the world. The program consists of 
two parts, a selection of half a dozen or more prescribed 
figures, and five minutes' free skating at the choice of the 
contestant. The most comprehensive Continental sched- 
ule is that of the Austrian Skating Association (Fig. 10), 
of which Nos. 1, 2, 3,9, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, 13, 14, 15, 24, 27, 
30, 33 constitute the I. S. U. program. There are four 
kinds of each number, begun on each of the four edges. 
Specimens of the free skating may be found in Fig. 357. 

Translated from the "Wettlauf-Ordnung der Interna- 
tionalen Eisiauf-Vereinigung, festgesetzt vom III ordent- 
lichen Congress zu Stockholm, 1897," and unaltered at IV 
Congress, London June, 1899. Substantially the same, 191 1. 


13 J* 15 /£ 

10 — The Prescribed Figures of the German and the 
Austrian Skating Associations and the I. S. U. 

Nos. i, 3, 9, 5, 2, 12 and 8 of Fig. io, are issued in Berlin 
(1900), as "Elements of Figure Skating" with the following 


1. Hold the body erect. Don't look down upon the 
ice, nor under any circumstances at the toe of your skate. 






2. Carry the unemployed leg slightly bent at the knee, 
behind the employed, the toe turned out, back, and down. 

3. Whenever it is necessary to swing the unemployed 
leg forward, bring it back to its normal position as soon 
as possible. 



The Reverse Q's, 
Nos. 41, 42, and 
43, are in the Ger- 
man schedule, not 
in the Austrian. 
For the shape of 
paragraph diagram 
now required, Cf. 
Fig. 421, See p. 221. 

41 4? 43 

4. Avoid all jerky movement, and let the hands follow 
the motion of the body naturally, without swinging. 

5. Practice each figure only in the prescribed eight; 
aim at equal size and symmetrical position of both lobes 
(i. e. keep the axis true). 

6. Skate each figure as large as possible. 

7. Practice indefatigably the four simple edges until 
you are complete master of them. They are the founda- 
tion of all figure skating. • 


The marked difference between the Continental and 
the American tests is at once apparent. The selection, 
months beforehand, of a few specific movements, no 
matter how fundamental, from a list so small as the I. S. 
U. program, permits concentration of practice on a limited 
number of figures, and in so far makes against the develop- 
ment of all-round skating. The American program which 
aims "to include everything appertaining to the art" is 
more thorough; but, practically, the filling out of some of 
the numbers in recent New York competitions has been 
so meagre, and "the love for adornment with medals has 
seemed to be so much more prevalent than the love for 
the art of skating," that some of the older skaters have 
resigned from the N. A. S. A., whose management, accord- 
ing to Caspar Whitney {Harper's Weekly \ Feb. 25, 1899), 
has not been free from local bias. Perhaps, if some of the 
numbers were prescribed beforehand, and some drawn 
by lot at the contest, all ends might best be served. 


11— G. Hugel, Champion of the World, 1899-1900, in 
Second Curve of of Rocker, in the Competition 
at Davos, February, 1899 


1898. London: 1, H. Grenander, Stockholm; 2, G. 

Hugel; 3, G. Fuchs. 
1897. Stockholm: G. Hiigel, Vienna. 
1896. St. Petersburg: G. Fuchs, Munich. 


12 — U. Salchow, Champion of Europe, 1898-1900, in ob 
Rocker, in the Competition at Davos, February, 1899 


1 896-1 897. Competition not held. 
1895. Budapest: T. von Foldvary, Budapest, 
1894. Vienna: Ed. Englemann, Vienna. 
1893. Berlin: H. Grenander, Stockholm. 
1892. Vienna: Ed. Englemann, Vienna. 
1891. Hamburg: O. Uhlig, Berlin. 

13— Dr. A. G. Keane, Champion of America, 1898-1902 


1887, first champion, under N. A. S. A., F. P. Good; 
'88, '89, L. Rubenstein; '90, no contest; '91, G. D. 
Phillips declined to skate off tie with L. Rubenstein; '92, 
Phillips beat J. F. Bacon and retired (N. Y. Herald, Feb. 
16); '93, Bacon beat H. S. Evans; '94, contest aban- 
doned; '95, Phillips reentered and won, but was beaten in 
'96 by Evans, who then retired; '97, Phillips beat Keane; 
then retired and took charge of the St. Nicholas Rink. 


Irving Brokaw, N. Y., Champion of America, 1906 

who took up the International Style in 1907 with part IV of 
this book, skated abroad in 1908 and 1909, bublished The Art 
of Skating in 1910, founded the International Skating Club in 
191 1, and is the best amateur artistic skater in the U. S. A. in 
the newest style. See p. 161. The 1913 Edition of his Art of 
Skating contains many new free and pair-skating diagrams. 
See, also, Country Life, N. Y., Feb., 191 3. 

CHAMPIONS (Continued) 

1904, Champion of America, W. F. Duffy, N. Y.; '05, 
Dr. Arthur G. Keane, N. Y.; '06, Irving Brokaw, N. Y.; 
1907, Edward W. Bassett, N. Y.; '09, Arthur G. Williams, 
Newark, N. J. No contests '03, '08, '10, ' 11, ' 12. 



1901 Stockholm, 1902 London, 1903 St. Petersburg, 
1904 Berlin, 1905 Stockholm, — Ulrich Salchow (S. A. S.) 

1906 Munich, — Dr. Gilbert Fuchs (Munich). 

1907 Vienna, 1908 Troppau, 1909 Stockholm, 1910 
Davos, 191 1 Berlin,— U. Salchow (S. A. S.). tenth time. 

19 1 2 Manchester, Eng.,' — Fritz Kachler (Vienna). 


1901 Vienna, — Gustav Hiigel (I. S. C, Davos) 
1902-3 Competition was not held. 

1904 Davos, — Ulrich Salchow (Stockholm A. S.) 

1905 Bonn, — Max Bohatsch (Vienna). 

1906 Davos, 1907 Berlin,— U. Salchow (S. A. S.) 

1908 Warsaw, — E. Hertz (Cottage Club, Vienna). 

1909 Budapest, 1910 Berlin, — U. Salchow (S. A. S.) 

191 1 St. Petersburg, — Per Thor^n (S. A. S.) 

1912 Stockholm, — Gosta Sandahl (S. A. S.) 


1906 Davos, 1907 Vienna, — Mrs. Edgar Syers (London), 

1908 Troppau. 1909 Budapest, 1910 Berlin, 191 1 

Vienna,— Frl. Lili Kronberger (Budapest). pest). 

1912 Davos, — Frl. Opika von Meray-Horvath (Buda- 


1908 St. Petersburg, — Frl. A. Hiibler, Heinrich Burger. 

1909 Stockholm, — Mr. and Mrs. Johnson (London). 

19 10 Berlin, — Frl. Hiibler, H. Burger (Munich). 

191 1 Vienna, — -Frl. Eilers, W. Jakobsson (Finland). 

1912 Manchester, Eng./ — Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Johnson. 



The strict rules for English form have undoubtedly con- 
tributed to a high level of general proficiency among Eng- 
lish skaters, but at the expense of individual freedom and 
elasticity. Judges and skaters have a definite standard to 
go by, even if it doesn't suit everybody. On the other 
hand, the freedom of the American schedule and rules 
makes it difficult for skaters always to know just what 
local judges expect of them. 

The rules of the National Amateur Skating Association 
of the United States, are as follows: "The officials of a 
figure-skating competition shall be three judges and one 
scorer. The judging shall be done on a sc,ale of points 
running from the number of contestants down to o. 

Experience shows the following to be the most practical 
method of scoring: The number to be given to the one 
standing first in any section shall be that of the number of 
contestants. Should there be two or more of equal merit, 
they should be marked the same number; and the one 
coming next below takes the number resulting from sub- 
tracting the number of competitors above him from the 
number entered. A total failure is marked zero. A fall 
does not necessarily constitute a failure. 

At the conclusion of each figure, each judge shall, with- 
out consultation with his associates, mark the number of 
points he awards to each competitor. These reports shall 
then be compared, and in case of disagreement the majori- 
ty shall decide. The scorer shall keep an accurate record 
of the points allowed to each contestant on each figure/' 

The chief objection to the American competition is the 
inordinate length of the program and the injustice of 
counting all numbers alike. As it is, a good skater may 
lose on an easy number more points than he can make up 
on several difficult numbers. 

According to I. S. U. rules, the success of every pre- 
scribed figure is marked with numbers o to 6, of which o = 
not skated or failure, 2 = pass, 4 = good, 6 = faultless; 3 
and 5 are intermediate. In assigning a number, first impor- 
tance is given to correct mark on the ice, second, to car- 
riage and movement; third, to size of figure, and fourth, to 
approximately exact placing of marks in the triple repeti- 
tion. As rules for correct tracing, are to be regarded: (1) 
the maintenance of the long and transverse axes of the 
figures in the triple repetition; (2) Approximate equality 
of the halves of the eights; (3) symmetrical grouping of 
the parts (4) curves without wobbling, skated to the end 
— i. <f., returning nearly to the starting point. 

The free skating is marked: (a) for the contents of the 


program offered (difficulty and variety); (b) for the man- 
ner of performance (harmonic composition, surety, pose, 
and movement, etc.); in each case with the numbers o to 
6, with the same values as in the prescribed figures. 

The number of points for free figures plus the number of 
points for compulsory figures, gives for each skater indi- 
vidually the total number of points which he has earned 
from the individual judge. Each judge ranks the com- 
petitors according to these total points, and the final 
result is obtained by adding the ranking ordinals (the 
lowest winning). 

In the competition for the world's championship at 
Davos, Feb. 10, u, 1900, the score of the five judges was 
as follows (prescribed figures, Nos. 9, 6, 7, 8, 15, 24, 30, 
33, Fig. 10): 

U. Salchow, skating his famous Star (Fig. 14) in the World's 
Championship Competition at Davos 

Gustav Hiigel, Vienna. 

Prescribed figures, 206 232 219 233 225 = 1115 

Free skating, 96 120 120 120 120 = 576 

302 352 339 353 345 




Ulrich Salchow, Stockholm. 

Prescribed figures, 244 239 230 241 223 = 1183 

Free skating, 108 96 108 108 96 = 516 


352 335 344 349 3*9 = 1699 

Thus Hiigel won because three judges out of five ranked 
him first, although Salchow led him by eight points! 
Hiigel was superior in his specialties, which were his far 
mous dance steps (Fig. 15), spectacles, brackets and loops, 
jumps from if to ob, and ob to of, and his corkscrew spin 


on bended leg, coiling around it the unemployed held in 
both hands, and finishing with a pirouette on the toe, all 
at a tremendous speed. The field steps embraced rockers, 
brackets, counters, cross Mohawks, and 
other difficult steps, done at high speed, 
in rapid succession, mingled in bewil- 
dering and effective fashion. Salchow's 
field figures were slower, consisting of 
spread-eagles, jumps, and chain threes; 
he did the Grenander 8 (Fig. 88 — 
skated by Callie Curtis in Hamburg, 
14-Salchow'sStar l86 90, the Engelmann star (Fig. 14) 
a to b, 5 ft. °f S reat si z e (Cf. Fig. 357, No. 62); and 
c to d, 4 ft. he jumped from an of, turned twice in 
loop, 1 1 ft. the air, and came down on of. 

15 — G. Hugel, in Dance Steps. World's Championship 
Competition at Davos 

Henning Grenander, of Stockholm, the winner of the 
first world's competition held under the new I. S. U. rules 
in February, 1898, had been living two years in London; 
and several British skaters had been for some years 
essaying the Continental style. Under the influence of 
this style, which is better adapted to rink skating, the 
N. S. A. adopted June 10, 1897, a special figure skating 
test, which, however, was given up in 1902. See p. 138. 



Hiigel believes that the insistence by the I. S. U. upon 
accurate placing of marks, is making against the best in- 
terests of artistic skating. Accurate placing compared 
with good carriage and movement, seems to him like a 
building-plan compared to an artistic picture. "Carriage 
and movement,' , he says,* "are means of expression which, 
reflecting the inner, actual nature of the skater, should be 
in perfect harmony with his mastery, and give a true 
expression of his artistic style and his real ability to skate. 
But practically to make good form secondary to a painful 
striving for mere accuracy of place (which enforces un- 
graceful contortions of head and shoulders, and in which 
a perfectly worthless stagnation point is attainable), is a 
complete perversion of real artistic skating at the expense 
of grace and beauty." (Is Kachler, p. 163, of this kind?) 

On the other hand, the Anglo-Swiss school of British 
skaters believe that the N. S. A. are too lax in their inter- 
pretation of their requirements of good form, large size, 
freedom from swing, and accuracy of placing; and the 
clubs at Grindelwald, St. Moritz, and Davos, whose tests 
eschew the swinging cross-rolls, are going to form an 
association to preserve the true English style large and 
bold, free from Continental influence. The figure-skating 
committee of the N. S. A., however, on March 7, 1900, 
recommended the holding of individual competitions in 
both the English and the Continental styles; and a sub- 
committee was appointed to consider the question of 
amending the rules of the I. S. U. regarding form in the 
skating of continuous figures. This committee has not 
yet reported, but the following cautions by a member 
will no doubt be amplified into definite 


1. The unemployed toe should be turned down and out. 

2. The employed knee should never be stiff. 

3. The unemployed leg should never be hooked up. 

4. The unemployed leg should never be permitted to 
swing aimlessly, — each movement of it should have some 
definite object: to facilitate a change of edge or a turn; 
to accelerate or arrest a movement, etc. 

5. The arms should not swing violently; if they are 
carried one across and the other away from the body, they 
should be extended so that the hands are on the side 
opposite the unemployed foot, in order that the balance 
may be preserved. (See Fig. 8, just before the swing, an(J 
the illustration on the next page. Cf. Figs. 353-4.) 

*Deutscher Eissport, Berlin, 1 Mar. 1900. 


rif — Position 

The N. S. A. held an International Competition in Con- 
tinental form at the New Niagara, London, February 21, 
22, 1900; the prescribed figures, Nos. 7, 24, 30, and 33, 
Fig. 10; free skating, four minutes. The 
winner was Salchow, "the finest skater we 
have yet seen," reports a member, "better 
than Grenander, more accurate than Hu- 
gel, with more strength and pace and as 
much 5 size as Fuchs." The coming year, 
the N.S.A. will celebrate its majority, with 
its first tests in Continental style. And 
thus the two schools "come together," not 
to form a new style, for the two can never 
mix; but, at last, the exclusive British asso- 
ciation officially recognizes the style which 
is supplanting, and will more and more of the Arms 
supplant, its own stiff style, because it is [Continental] 
growing less and less suited to modern conditions. The 
sober, contented majority may continue for some years 
to plod on unruffled by the ultra-conservative "Extreme 
Right" (the Swiss school), or by the more liberal 
"Extreme Left" (the American and Continental school); 
but the main body of British skaters can no longer slur 
our "cramped eights" and "stunted threes," (M-W.64); 
or inculcate such ungenerous doctrine as this (S. C. 24): 
"With the straight leg the performer of the humblest 
'Three' may be called a good skater; without it, the ex- 
ponent of the most intricate and showy figure will fail to 
be reckoned in that class. The highest degree of skill is 
possible of attainment by the one; by the other it can 
never be reached!" As Mr. Cook says (p. 15), the 
devotees of the art of skating should not put shackles 
upon it, or sacrifice everything for the winning of medals, 
but work to develop the Skating of the Future. 

"Judged by the number of tests passed in each year, 
the older style is fully holding its own, and maintaining 
the same rate of increase as before the introduction of 
International skating." See Diagram, giving curves of 
total tests in both styles, p. 6, Official Handbook of N. 
S. A. of Great Britain, 191 1. 

Fig. 357, No. 94 

Fig. 357, No. 95 

Skating Problems — Hook-Scrolls, from decorations on me- 
morial tombstones at Mycenae, carved nearly 3000 years ago. 
"I cannot do't without Counters." — Winter's Tale, 4, 3, 38. 


The Spiral "Alesander" and Spanish Leap, A. Panin, 
Yusupov Garden, St. Petersburg, 1897 

"If you break the ice and do this feat." — T. S.,%ij 2, 267. 

The 'Dutch Slide.'' Mr. Evans, Champion of U. S., 
1896, and Col. Fuller at threescore years and ten 

"He hath his health and ampler strength indeed 
Than most have of his age." — W. T., 4, 4, 4!5- 

"You that are of suppler joints, follow them quickly." 

— Tempest, 3, 3, 107. 



The Elements of Figure-Skating and the 
Strokes by which they are Combined 
into the Various Types of Movements. 
Definition of Terms. Boots and Skates. 


|TRICTLY speaking, there is but one element 
of figure skating, the curve; more strictly, 
two: a progressive element, the curve or edge; 
and a non-progressive element, the spin, on 
the flat of the skate or on the point of the toe 
(pirouette). By means of these two elements 
all possible figures may be skated. (Perhaps the jump — 
flying-turn — ought to be included). But this analysis is 
too minute to be of any practical use. Just as mere 
straight and curved lines are combined into the more ser- 
viceable units of the twenty-six letters of the alphabet, so 
the simple curve is combined by three motions of the body 
into double and triple-curve units, forming a figure skat- 
ing alphabet of twenty-six fundamental figures. These 
motions are: 

1. From side to side, causing a change of edge. 

2. Backward and forward, causing a change of direc- 

3. Round and round, causing a change of front. 

There is another way of connecting two curves by a 
combination of these motions, hinted at above: on two 
feet, the spread-eagle jump (Fig. 132); on one foot, the 
flying-turn. One can take wings, as it were, and accom- 
plish the change of position in the air, and come down 
upon the ice on either edge in either direction, according 
to the amount of rotation. (See Salchow's famous jump, 
P- 37.) 

(In the following diagrams the long, solid arrow marks 
the beginning of the movement; the dotted arrow, the ro- 
tation of the shoulders; the short, straight, solid arrow 
points with the face.* r = Right, l = Left; o = Out- 
side Edge, outer, 1 = Inside Edge, inner; f = Forward, 
b = Backward. Although most of the diagrams are be- 
gun on the rof, right outer forward, the same curve may 
be left outer backward, left inner forward, or right inner 
backward, as indicated in 16 and 17). 

*This symbol is used only in connection with the longer 
arrow, chiefly in the grapevines in Part III. 



16, 17 




I. Single Qurves, or Edges. 

Progression continuous. 

1 a Simple. Rotation uniform, 
b Forced. Rotation altered. 

II. Double Curves. 

A. Change of Edge, or Serpentine. 
Progression continuous. 

2 Serpentine. Two curves joined 
by a change of edge; no change 
of direction or front. 

3 Horn. A reflex serpentine, all in 
one direction, but with change of 
edge and front. 

4 Counter-Horn. Same as 3, but 
with opposite or counter-rota- 

B. Change of Direction. Turns or 
Curvilinear Angles. Progression 
continuous. Half rotation. 

5 Turn, or Three. Change of di- 
rection, edge, and front. 

6 Counter]-Three\ or Bracket. 

Two forced curves, with change 
of direction and edge, but no 
change of front. 

7 Rocking-Turn, or Rocker 
Change of direction and front, 
but no change of edge. Rotation 
like 5, (a) with forced curve; 
(b) without forced curve. 

8 Counter Rocking-Turn, or 

Counter. Change of direction 
and front, but no change of edge. 
Rotation like 6, (a) with, (b) 
without forced curve. 

Progression arrested. No rotation. 

9 Beak, or V. Change of direction, 
but with no change of edge or 
front. (Like 7, without change 
of front.) 

10 Counter-Beak, or V. Change 
of direction, but with no change 
of edge or front. (Like 8, with- 
out change of front.) 


23, 24 


30, 31 

34, 35 

36, 37 

11 Hook. Like 9 or 10, without 

angle; second curve directly 
over the first. 

C. Change of Front, or Rotation. 
(1) Rotation on the edge: Loops 
and Ringlets. 
Progression continuous. Full rotation. 

12 a Loop (oval). Change of front. 

but no change of edge or direc- 
b Ringlet. Like a, only round. 

13 Ringlet-Turn. Change of front 

and edge, but no change of direc- 

14 Counter Ringlet-Turn. Like 

13, with counter-rotation. 

15 Three-Loop. Change of edge, 

direction and front. 

16 Bracket-Loop. Like 15, with 


(2) Rotation on the point: Pirouettes. 

Half, or one and a half, rotation. 

17 Pirouette. Change of front, 

edge and direction. 

Full rotation. 

18 Pirouette. Change of front, but 

no change of edge or direction. 

(The second curve may come off from the first at any 
angle, varying with the amount of rotation.) 


Half, or one and a half, rotation. 

19 Pirouette Loop. Similar to 17, 

with change of edge and direc- 

Full rotation. 

20 Pirouette Loop. Similar to 18, 

without change of edge or direc- 


42, 43 

Half, or one and a half, rotation. 

21 Counter Pirouette. Change of 
front and direction, but no 
change of edge. 

Full rotation. 

22 Counter Pirouette. Change of 
front and edge, but no change 

of direction. 

(The two curves of the reflex serpentine, or horn, may — 
theoretically — be joined not only by a change of edge, but 
also by a turn (Holletschek), or by a pirouette, thus: 

Rocking-Horn. Like 3, with rock- 
ing-turn instead of change of edge. 

Counter Rocking-Horn. Like 4, 

with counter-rocking-turn instead 
of change of edge. 

Pirouette Horn. Like 3, with 
pirouette instead of change of edge. 

Counter-Pirouette Horn. Like 4, 
*5^&iL/ with pirouette instead of change 

44, 45 "" of ed S e - 

These combinations, however, are so difficult, that at pres- 
ent they are of little practical value, and may be left out 
of account.) 

III. Triple Curves. 

Combinations of three curves are almost limitless, but 
in practical skating, the following triple combinations are 
as essentially units as the above twenty-two fundamental 
figures, and much oftener used than some of them, notably 
3, 4, 11, 13, 14, and 15-22, which may be technically 
better entitled to the name of elements. 

Progression continuous. Full rotation, 

23 Two Turns, or Double Three. 

Change of front, and double 
change of direction and edge. 

Progression arrested. 

24 a Cross-cut, or Anvil. (As de- 
veloped from the double-three 
with second curve forced to a 
straight line.) Change of front 
and direction, but no change of 
edge. Half rotation. 

47 46 

24 b Cross-cut. (As composed of 
rocker-beak, 9, and counter- 
beak, 10, cutting twice.) Half 



25 Counter Cross-cut. (Counter- 
beak and rocker-beak, cutting 
once, short.) Little or no rotation. 

26 Swedish Cross-cut. (Counter- 
beak and rocker-beak, cutting 
twice, long.) Half rotation. 

The "Three Edges" — Q's and Reverse Q's 

A change of edge and a turn (formerly called a Q — Fig. 
51), and a turn and a change of edge (formerly called a 
Reverse Q— Fig. 52), our "Three Edges," are most 




familiar elements in English combined skating. When 
skated nearly straight, they must not be confounded with 
the rocker and the counter, which leave the same marks 
on the ice. Fig. 53. 

a Reverse Q, three edges. 





b Rocker, one edge. 

c Q, three edges. 

d Counter, one edge. 

In the Q's, the deflection in the 
curve after as well as before the turn, is an actual change 
of edge; in the rocking-turns, neither before, nor after, nor 
at the turn, is there any. change of edge. 


The "Four Edges" 

The commonest type of combination of four curves, is 
.the "four edges" on one foot, or "Arabesque" (in field, 
Fig. 54; in eight, Fig. 55), two serpentines connected by 


a turn. When skated nearly straight, it must not be con- 
founded with the counter-three, or bracket, which leaves 
the same marks on the ice. Fig. 56. 

a Double change of edge, four edges. 
b Same skated straight, four edges. 
c Counter-three, or bracket, two edges. 

In c y the deflection of the curve is not a double change; 
the figure is made of two forced curves (Fig. 17) instead 
of two serpentines (Fig. 18) — the curve up to the turn is 
all on one edge, the curve after the turn is all on another. 

The mark in the ice resembles a printer's brace ( ); 

and Continental skaters give this name (Klammer) 
to the four edges, skated in this form. When Mr. 
Maxwell Witham discovered on rollers, in 1880, that 
the figure could be skated on two eJges, he misnamed it 
Bracket (1 |). Continental skaters borrowed the 
figure, but named it more properly Counter- three (Ger- 
man, Gegendreier; Swedish, bakvand trea) because the 
rotation is counter to that of the regular three-turn. 
Since, however, the four-edge Brace is seldom skated, 
and since the counter-rocking-turn is called Counter, for 
short, the name Bracket is perhaps more serviceable than 
Counter-three, as it is shorter, and is actually sometimes 
used for the symbol « — . Cf. p. 178. 

Combinations of four curves, however, cannot tech- 
nically be termed elements. The two-and three-curve 
elements hitherto treated (except Q's) are strictly parts of 
larger figures; they must be repeated on the other foot in 
order to make complete figures. Four curves or more on 
one foot, however, make complete figures in themselves. 
There are two types of these figures: the continuous eight 
and the cross, or star. 


i Continuous Eights 

Two serpentines, two rockers, or two counters (four 
curves separately), skated to place on one foot, make com- 
plete figures of only two curves, with a double change of 


One-foot Eight 

One-half outer edge 
One-half inner edge 



One-half forward 
One-half backw'd 



One-half forward 
One-half backw'd 

No change of direct'n 

No change of edge. 

front. These difficult figures require most perfect balance 
and considerable flexibility of ankle. Continuous eights 
are easier if the turns are put on the circumference of the 
lobes instead of in the middle of the eight. In this way, 
forward and backward threes, double threes and counter- 
threes, outer and inner loops and cross-cuts, may be 
skated together by means of two serpentines into con- 
tinuous eights of four (or six) curves. Cf. pp. 190-1. 

61 62 

Four-Edge Eight Bracket Eight Loop Eight 

Continuous Eights of Four Curves 

63 64 65 — Counter 

Double-Three Eight Cross-cut Eight Cross-cut Eight 

Continuous Eights of Six Curves 


2 Crosses and Stars 

The Cross is the other typical one-foot figure made by- 
combinations of four, four cross-cuts, for example. 

66— Straight Cut 
Maltese Cross 

67— Curved Cut 
Maltese Cross 


-Swedish Cross-Cut 69 — Inverted Maltese 

Maltese Cross Cross 

The insertion of the Serpentine change, although it 
increases the number of curves, increases also the power 
and control of the skater and the variety of the figures. 
It produces another and often easier type of Cross, which 
is called the Star. See pp. 118 ff., 133, 222; and H 7 C, II 
and VII, I, a. 

70— Cross-Cut Star 

(Bell Loop. See Fig. 352) 

71— Hook Star 

72— pigs-Ear Star 

(Two Stars in one) 

73 — Counter Cross- 
Cut Star 


For more complicated varieties of this quadruple type 
of figure, see Fig. 357. These are the most difficult types 
of figure-skating movements, and we can reach them only 
by diligent practice of the elements on right principles. 


The above twenty-six two- and three-curve elements 
are naturally of varying degree of difficulty and practica- 
bility. In the present condition of the art of skating, they 
are reduced in general availability for beginners to fifteen 
fundamental movements for practice: 1, the Simple 
Curve, or Edge (la); 2, Forced Curve, or Counter-Curve 
(ib); 3, Serpentine, or Change of Edge (2); 4, Turn, or 
Three (5); 5, Two Turns, or Double-Three (23); 6, Loop, 
Ringlet (12); 7, Cross-Cut, or Anvil (24a); 8, Counter- 
Three, or Bracket (6); 9, Rocking-Turn, or Rocker (7); 
10, Counter-Rocking Turn, or Counter (8); 11, Rocker 
Beak, or V (9); 12, Counter-Beak, or V (10); 13, Beak 
Cross-Cut (24^); 14, Counter-Cross-Cut (29); 15, 
Swedish Cross-Cut (26). (7 and 13 are the same figures 
made different ways, and with 14 and 15 are three curve 
elements, like the double-three, which was included in the 
original five elements of the Austrian and Swedish school 
— the curve, serpentine, three, double-three, and loop.) 

Simple Rolls and Eights 

By means of strokes from one foot to the other, these 
elementary movements may be skated together in field fig- 
ures (quarter circles), rolls (half circles), or to place as 
eights (full circles). There are four of each kind, begun 
on each of the four edges — of, if, ob, ib, — or fifty-six in 
all.* For examples, see page 29, Nos. 1-7. The Ser- 
pentine, the Rocker, and the Counter-Eight, are usually 
skated in this country as two-lobed Eights, in Europe as 
three-lobed Eights, called Paragraphs (see p. 178), thus: 

74 75 76 77 

Serpentine Bights Rocker-Eights 

78 79 


*The forced curve is not an independent element, — it is 
skated only in combination with the curve (rockers and coun- 
ters) or with itself (brackets). 

Combinations of Two Elements, on Alternate Feet 

Omitting Elements I and 2 as included in the others, 
each of the remaining thirteen elements may be combined 
not only with itself, but with each of the others, making 
qne hundred and sixty-nine rolls, or eights, on each edge, 
or six hundred and seventy-six in all. For examples, see 
page 29, Nos. 8-15 and 4W3- (Three hundred and 
twenty-four of these are illustrated by diagrams in H?, p. 
56 ff.) 

Combinations of Three Elements, on Alternate Feet 

Combinations of three elements are of course thirteen 
times as many, or a total of 8,788! For examples, see 
page 30, Nos. 16-35. (Three hundred and twenty-four 
symmetrical examples of these, only the middle element 
varying, are illustrated by diagrams in H 7 , p. 62 ff.) 

But something may be left to the imagination of the 
reader and to the ingenuity of the skater. "Although 
every possible stroke is now known," says Mr. Maxwell 
Witham, the veteran English skater,* "the multitude of 
combinations, by joining one stroke with another, is per- 
fectly endless: but whether the next generation will derive 
as much pleasure in devising these combinations as the 
pioneers in the art did in working out the simple initial 
strokes, is doubtful." Let us now briefly systematize for 
ready reference the practical strokes by which these com- 
binations are made. (See the new turns, p. 55, bottom.) 


The strokes are of three types: (1) from one curve to 
another on alternate feet; (2) from one curve to another 
on the same foot (the turns already treated as elements); 
and (3) a combination of the two — a short turn on one 
foot to a curve on the other. There are four kinds of 
each:. (1) on the same edge in the same direction; (2) 
in the same direction on a different edge; (3) on the same 
edge in a different direction; and (4) on a different edge 
in a different direction. 

1 Strokes from One Foot to the Other 

In going from a curve on one foot to a curve on«the 
other, the skater may put down the unemployed foot par- 
allel with the employed, or cross it over either in front or 
behind. There are thus three strokes for each original 
edge, — twelve when the second curve is on the same edge 
as the first, and twelve when on a different edge, or twenty- 
four strokes in the same direction. Theoretically, there 

^Badminton Magazine ', Dec, 1895, P- 608. 


are twenty-four similar strokes in an opposite direction, 
twelve on the same edge (Mohawks) and twelve on a 
different edge (Choctaws); and twenty-four more, because 
the feet may, theoretically, be put down in the opposite 
direction, either heel to heel or toe to toe. Of this total 
of seventy-two strokes, however, only about half, for phys- 
ical or aesthetic reasons, are practically available. 

2 Strokes on One Foot (Turns) 
Of the strokes on one foot, nothing further need be said 
here except that a properly executed turn is a great reser- 
voir of power; and that when a skater has acquired suffi- 
cient proficiency to glide on the same foot he thrusts with, 
on either edge, forward or backward, he has at his com- 
mand the most convenient progressive and combining 
stroke attainable. This is especially true of the Serpen- 
tine change of edge; and true, also, of the Three, the 
Bracket, the Rocker, and the Counter. 

3 The Turn and Stroke (Once-Back) 
Before the skater, however, has attained sufficient con- 
trol of the second curve to utilize on one foot all the power 

generated by the 
turn, he may save 
his power by trans- 
mitting it from the 
curve he cannot 
hold to a curve on 
the other foot, — 
and, what is more, 
gain power by the process. The substitution for the 
second curve of a forward three, for example, of a back- 
ward curve on the other foot — the English Once-Back 


(Fig. 80) — in such a vigorous stroke that it (or the Twice- 
Back, — the same thing repeated — Fig. 81) is used as the 
initial stroke of nearly all English combined figures. Con- 
tinental skaters call this stroke the Englander. A "Once- 
Back" from a Counter-Three or Bracket (carried to 
Europe by Callie Curtis in 1869) they call the Amerikaner. 

83— The "Once- Back" Strokes Skated to Place 

as Eights 

(Fig. 83, No. 6. See page 58, No. 25.) It corresponds to 
our Mohawk, which is generally skated here in place of it; 
as the "Once-Back" from a Rocker or Counter (Fig. 83, 
Nos. 9, 10) corresponds to our Choctaw. (See page 59, 
Nos. 33-36.) 


Theoretically, twelve Once-Back strokes may be made 
from each of the one-foot turns, or two hundred and 
seventy-six in all, thus (the Pirouette-Horns are omitted): 

I. Same edge, same direction,--72. The strokes from 
the Serpentine, Horn, Counter-Horn, Ringlet-Turn, 
Counter-Ringlet-Turn, and Counter-Pirouette. 

II. Same direction, different edge, — 48. The strokes 
from the Curve, Loop, Pirouette, and Pirouette-Loop. 

III. Same edge, different direction, — 96. The strokes 
from the Three, Counter-Three, Rocking-Horn, Counter- 
Rocking-Horn, Loop-Three, Counter-Loop-Three, Pirou- 
ette, and Pirouette Loop. 

IV. Different edge, different direction, — 60. The 
strokes from the Rocker, Counter, Beak, Counter-Beak, 
and Counter-Pirouette, — total, 276. 

Two hundred and four of this total of two hundred and 
seventy-six Once-Back strokes are illustrated by diagrams 
in H 7 , p. 70 ff. Although actual practice in the art of 
skating is gradually drawing nearer and nearer to the theo- 
retically possible, at present, realization is far short of the 
possible in the execution of the Once-Back strokes. It 
will be sufficient to consider those made from the elemen- 
tary practice movements (page 51), omitting the four 
Cross-Cuts (from which, of course, no effective stroke can 
be made, on account of the reverse curve) and adding the 
six pirouettes. These Once-Back strokes may be skated 
together, like the elements, to place as Eights (Fig. 83). 
The stroke from the Three (No. 3) is the same as the 
English "Once-Back;" but the stroke from the Double- 
Three (No. 4. Two-Turns, the Canadian "Ransom," M. 
57) is not the same as the English "Twice-Back" 
(Fig. 81). In order to reach the center on a forward 
edge from either a "Once-Back" or a "Twice-Back," 
the skater must perform a "Once-Back and Forward," 
or "Twice-Back and Forward" (Fig. 82, from S. C). 

The following tables (pp. 56, ff.) show all the strokes 
practicable in 1900. In 1903, Dr. Winzer (see p. 138) 
demonstrated to me on the ice at Davos the practicability 
of a new kind of turn. By reversing the movements of 
shoulders and balance-foot, by braking, and by shifting 
the balance on the skating-foot, he got rid of the middle 
curve of double turns altogether (Cf. p. 103), so that the 
print resembled a single turn of two curves, but both in 
the same direction! (Cf. Fig. 358, No. 18; Fig. 504, Nos. 
4, 5, 12). These one-way "mad-turns" are briefly ex- 
plained in Holletschek, 7th ed. (19 10) pp. 99 ff. with il- 
lustrations of 36 out of the 288 possible combinations of 
double-turn threes, brackets, rockers, counters, rocker- 
beaks, and counter-beaks. For the inventor's present 
(1912) opinion of these (ideal American!) stunts, see p. 222. 


The Strokes 

I. Same Edge, Same Direction 


I Parallel. 

Stroke on one 

turn and stroke: 
from Ringlet- 
Turn, Counter 
and Counter- 


2 Cross (+)• 
in front. 

stroke and turn: 
from Ringlet- 
Turn, Counter 
and Counter- 


7, [%] 

*Only the Ringlet-Turn is illustrated, to save space. For 
the Ringlet, a Counter-Ringlet or Counter-Pirouette may 
be substituted. 



3 On to Rich- 
mond (4). 
Forward, behind. 
in front. 

turn and stroke: 
from Ringlet- 
Turn, Counter 
and Counter- 

it . 

II. Same Direction, Different Edge 



turn and stroke: 
Once- Back 
from Loop, 
Pirouette, or 

2 Lap-foot (-f) 

in front. 

turn and stroke: 
from Loop„ 
Pirouette, or 



3 Scratch (X) of to if if to of ob to ib ib to ob 

in front. 

turn and stroke: 
Once- Back 
from Loop, 


III. Same Edge, Different Direction. 


I Parallel. 



Heel to heel. 


of Bracket if Three ob Three ib Bracket 

ing turn 
and stroke. 


of Bracket 


Once- Once-For- 
Forward ward from 
ib Bracket 

(This Once-Back from the Bracket, of American origin, 
is the commonest initial stroke in Continental combina- 
tions. See Fig. 90, E. The present American form of it is 
the Mohawk. See Figs. 105-8. Mohawks and Brackets 
are difficult if the shoulders are not well flattened (Eng- 
lished) and the feet "Spread-Eagled;" they are most con- 
venient in hand-in-hand skating, because they require no 
rotation, — couples can skate circling figures, facing the 
same way all the time.) 



2 Cross. 

Cross Mo- 
hawks (+M) 
toe to toe. 
heel to heel. 


Threes and 



and stroke: 


from of Three if Bracket ob Bracket ib Three 

IV. Different Edge, Different Direction 


I Parallel. 



Heel to heel. 

Corresponding iu&\ 




(The name of 
each, in the 
column below.) 


turn and stroke: /' 

Once- Back 

from of Counter if Rocker ob Rocker ib Counter 



2 Cross. 

Cross Choc- 
taw (+Ch). 
toe to toe. 
heel to heel. 




of Rocker if Counter ob Counter ib Rocker 

turns and 


from of Rocker if Counter ob Counter ib Rocker 

Of these strokes, combinations of 2 and 14, plain skating 
forward (Fig. 140, p. 77) and of 4 and 16, plain skating 
backward, are already familiar to the beginner; also 17, 
18, the Lap-Foot Circle forward, and 19, 20, the Lap- 
Foot Circle backward (Figs. 142-3, p. 
77). 1 and 3 are almost impossible as 
parallel strokes, — the push-off must 
be given from a finish on the inside 
edge; they are usually skated as cross- 
strokes, 5, 7. The cross-strokes 6, 8, 
are also practically impossible, unless 
the first curve finishes with a change 
to the outside edge for the push-off. 
The back Mohawks, 27, 28, and 
the back Choctaws, 35, 36, are famil- 
- —Back Threes iar plain strokes from backward to 
forward. The Cross-Mohawks and 
Cross-Choctaws are in themselves 
difficult and awkward strokes, used only in combining 
other movements, — the Cross-Choctaws, for example, in 
the skating of back Threes to a center as Eights, 3 to 4, 
6 to 1, Fig. 85. 



The "On to Richmond" strokes, 9-12, so called, because 
with forward strokes you go backward (Fig. 86), and with 
backward strokes you go forward (Fig. 87), were popular 
at the time of the Civil War when they were named. As 
scratch strokes, 21-23, especially backward, skated on dif- 
ferent edges, they are most ser- 
viceable to a skater in straight- 
ening out hand-in-hand field 
figures, or in recovering from 
an edge that he cannot hold. 
They are now sometimes skat- 
ed as Eights (Figs. 88, 89), by 
the rare few who have skill to ~ 
get momentum enough out of 

In the diagrams, the circle is 
broken to show the stroke: in 
1 at the end of a rob Circle, 
the left is crossed over in front to begin the Second Circle 
of the 8, lob; at the conclusion of this Circle, 2, the right 
is crossed over in front to begin the rob Circle. In 3, at 
the conclusion of a lof Circle, the right is crossed over 
behind to begin a rof Circle; at the conclusion of which, 
4, the left is crossed over behind to begin a lof Circle. 
This last was a specialty of Mr. Everett H. Barney as 
early as 1867, and has seldom, if ever, been skated by any 
one since. 

88— The Curtis Eight 

The Barney Eight 


The prime function of these strokes, then, is to supply 
the transition between glides. If, however, the glide is 
reduced and the figure is skated entirely of the short 
strokes, exaggerated by the clatter of the blades on the 
ice, we have the noisy movements called " Locomotives," 
composed of straight inner and outer Mohawks and Choc- 
taws (broken Serpentines,) and "On to Richmond" 
strokes, single, f and b, r and l foot leading, and double, 
f and b, r and l leading alternately. They are not beauti- 
ful, and were dropped in 1891 from the American schedule 
together with the "On to Richmond." 



The combination, by these strokes, of glides on longer 
or shorter curves, with and without turns, furnishes the 
material of all the movements in progressive figure-skat- 
ing. This combination is frequently rhythmical and the 
movements may therefore be skated to music. They com- 
prise Marches, Promenade, or Dance Steps, (i) in Field, 
(2) in Circles, (3) in ordinary (perpendicular) Eights, (4) 
in wing (horizontal) Eights. Most of these can be skated 
hand-in-hand by one or more pairs; and several of them 
serve as the most effective practice exercises for the 
acquisition of some of the elementary movements and 
strokes, which are much easier performed in combination 
than alone, notably the turns. 



-;■* rif 

90 — Common Types of Rhythmical Combination 

(a) In field. The familiar Promenade Step, originated 
by the Misses Plimpton, daughters of the inventor of the 
roller skate (MxW, 262). (b) One of the many variations 
of it, "The Spy Pond Polka," named by Col. C. E. 
Fuller, (c) In Circle. "The Antihypochondriac" (face 
to face, MxW, 277) from Holletschek?, p. 124. (d) In 
Eight. Once back and forward Eight, (e) In Wing-Eight. 
"The Jagendorp" (from H 7 . 143, MxW, 265). 

"She can turn, and turn, and still go on 
And turn again." — Othello, 4, I, 264. 


Practice Field Steps: 91, iob change spectacles, with 
scratch strokes (Callie Curtis); 92, f Counters, Cross- 
Strokes, and ob Threes; 93-5, Russian (Finnish) Figures: 
93, Cross-Choctaws and ib Threes; 94, Pirouettes and 
Cross Strokes; 95, Counter Pirouettes and Parallel 

Practice Eights: 96, if and once-back; 97~98, On to 
Richmond and Scratch Strokes and ob Threes; 99, f and 
b Brackets, with Scratch Strokes. 




ioo, Practice Eights for Mohawks and f Counters; ioi. 
Practice Eights for Mohawks and b Rockers 

Practice Eights: 102, f Rockers and b Brackets; 103, 
f Mohawks and ib Counters; 104, Counter Spectacles, 
practice for Rockers and Counters, very difficult. 





Practice Eights: 105, if change Mohawks, Scratch 
Stroke, and ib Q's; 106, f Mohawks and ob Q's; 107, 
f Mohawks and ob Double-three Q's; 108, f Mohawks, 
ob Loop Q's, and b Choctaws. 



This kind of skating ought to be more popular in this 
country where, after the first snow comes, the available 
skating surfaces are small. The increase of artificially 
frozen ice-rinks has been the means of popularizing this 
style in England (at the expense of the traditional com- 
bined skating) to such an extent that a whole new book 
on it has recently been published (H-H., p. 19), and 
large space is devoted to it in the latest English books 
(cf. MxW., chap, xv, and M-W., chap. viii). See p. 20. 

There are three methods of 
holding hands: 

1. Side by side, one hand 
joined: partners facing same way, 
r to l; facing opposite ways, r -• I 
to R, or l to l; both hands joined J> 
(crossed), r to r and l to l. „j^ 

2. Face to face, one hand 
joined, one partner skating f, the 
other b, r to r or l to l; both 
hands joined: one partner skat- 
ing f, the other b, r to l and l to 

r; both skating sidewise (vis-a- jq 9 Echelon 

vis), r to l and l to r. 

3. Front and behind, or side by side, one slightly 
in advance of the other, both hands joined, as in Fig. 109, 
from H-H., p. 20, by permission. 

In side-by-side skating, whether one hand or both hands 
are joined, the skater on the outer circumference must, 
just before a turn, get in advance or take the lead; the 
turn, however, must be made by both at the same time. 
That the stronger skater may always lead, the positions, 
which change after a turn, may be restored by a pull and 
a pass, the hands being loosed at the pull and joined again 
just before the stroke is taken up on the other foot, when 
the skaters will be in the same relative position as before . 
Sometimes hand-in-hand skaters are in a false position 
for the next stroke; for example, if at end of a Forward- 
Three when both are on rib, gentleman leading, lady on 
his right, a lob is taken, the false position may be reme- 
died in two ways: 1, the gentleman without loosing hands 
may swing his partner around into the leading position, 
both on the lob; or 2, the skaters may as soon as both 
are on the lob loose hands, turn their bodies into the cor- 
rect position, and then, joining hands on the other side, 
continue on the lob. This is called a Reverse. Lock 
passes and reverses are made without loosing hands, 
Echelon fashion. See Figs. 110-114. 



110-14 — Hand-in-Hand Skating (from H-H, kindness of 
Longmans & Co.) 

Fig. no, Once-Back with Swing, and forward (side by 
side); in, The Rocker-Pass (side by side); 112, Once-Back 
with Swing and Pass, and Once-Back with Reverse (side by 
side); 113, The Q Lock Reverse (Echelon); 114, The Double 
Mercury (face to face). Cf. Fig. 115. 

The simplest form of side-by-side skating is the outside 
edge-roll and the cross-roll forward, then the promenade 
(varied by the insertion of Mohawks, turns, and changes 
of edge), and the once-back and forward (waltzing); of 
the face-to-face skating, the same rolls (one skated for- 
ward, the other backward), the Mercury, the Pigeon 
Wings, or Q Scuds. (Figs. II5-II7, from M-W., 272, by 



In the Mercury, 
one partner skates 
Once-back and f, 
the other Once- 
back and b; so that 
one is skating the 
f cross-roll while 
the other is skating 
the b cross-roll. 
The skater who is 
going b pulls his 
partner at the 
turn, who comes 
round with a swish 
that is most exhil- 
arating. Many 
ladies who are not 


strong on the b cross-roll may Q and BACK ^^ 
enjoy the figure if they start f ^ 17 

but they should not essay the 
Flying Mercury until strong on ob. Q Scuds 
we call Pigeon Wings. Skaters in Figs. 1 15-7 
mercury scud. ^ constantly reV olving round each other. 



Another variety of skating for two, growing in popu- 
larity, is a combination of hand-in-hand' skating with skat- 
ing apart, the skaters often crossing, meeting, and touch- 
ing or joining hands. It is a reversion to early American 
combination skating (Swift and Clark, pp. 66-72), in 
which all join in a center circle and then skate apart. This 
kind of skating provides the skater with as good "oppor- 
tunity for the display of individual skill and of skill in 
adapting himself with precision to the powers of others" 
as English combined skating; and, what is more, gives 
opportunity, as English combined skating does not, for 
the performance of small curved figures, as well as large 
ones. Two skaters, for example, may skate such three- 


lobed eights as Fig. 10, Nos. 2, 6, 7, 12-15, 4-I-43* clasping 
hands on the middle curves; and by loosing hands just 
before the turns and joining just before starting on the 
other foot, may skate together movements like Figs. 118- 
131. The insertion of %, J/£, full and 1^ revolutions, 
renders all of the turns available for pair-skating, with no 
limit to the variety possible in the movements apart. 



Figs. 118-131— Pair-Skating (Elementary). See p. 112 

Further illustration of these types will be given in the 
next chapter. But before we leave the elements to take 
up the figures in detail, there are one or two other general 
matters of importance that we may best treat of here. 


In going from a curve on one foot to a curve on the 
other, the skater will find that in order to secure a graceful 
swing and a continuous glide without a hitch or kick, the 
feet must be put down on continuing or on parallel lines. 
In order to secure this parallelism, as will be seen by 
observing the position of the feet, marked for this very 
purpose in diagrams (p. 56, Nos. 1-40), one foot or the 
other or both must be turned farther in or farther out than 
is natural in walking or in plain skating. Ability to turn 
the toes out nearly, if not quite, at right angles, is almost 
essential to the clean performance of the Cross-Rolls, 
Mohawks, Choctaws, Brackets, Rockers, Counters, Pivot- 
Circles, and almost all continuous figures. It is not abso- 
lutely necessary to be able to turn both feet out at once, 


as in Figs. 132-3. But even the so-called "weak" ankles 
can be trained to perform all that is required of them by a 
little practice at home before the ice comes. Herein, the 
English style is of the utmost service to American begin- 
ners. See pp. 166 ff., for practice exercises off the ice. 

132— Spread Eagle 133— Spread Eagle 

132, J. F. Bacon, just after a complete revolution in the air, 
and therefore not yet quite erect. 133, L. A. Servatius in 
Cross-foot Combination Spread Eagle.* 


For example, stand on the right foot and look along the 
right shoulder; stiffen the right leg, and on the ankle as a 
pivot rotate the left shoulder and hip as far 
back as possible, bending the left leg just 
enough to raise the toe from the floor, — the 
toe pointing downward and backward, the calves touch- 
ing. Actual motion in a curve on the ice will cause the 
skater to lean slightly in order to preserve his equilibrium; 
otherwise, the extreme backward position is the correct 
(English) position for large forward edges on the right 
foot, inside (Fig. 149) or outside (Fig. 159) according to 
inclination. See p. 168, and New Skating, pp. 12, 13. 

Repeat the exercise, only look along the 
left shoulder. This is the position for large 
backward edges, inside or outside, accord- 
ing to inclination. (Figs. 164, 167.) The striking differ- 
ence in the two chief positions, therefore, is that the head, 

*Servatius' Combination Spread Eagle starts with plain 
straight spread, then changes to straight with feet crossed 
as in Fig. 133; next changes to double Serpentine, then to 
Serpentine with one foot and straight with the other, alter- 
nately, feet still crossed; finishing with toes pointing in. 
Another variation is starting heel to heel, as in Fig. 133, 
change to toe to heel backward, then toe to heel forward, 
then heel to heel, legs straight; next changing to cross-foot, 
and finish with toes in, — all without a break. Servatius 
skates a curved Spread Eagle, toes in, with knees touching. 
But these are acrobatic feats rather than artistic skating, 
and should have been dropped from our schedule in 1891. 





which is always turned in the direction of progression, 
looks over the employed shoulder on forward, and over 
the unemployed shoulder, on backward edges. 

If, however, the edges are the beginnings of turns, the 
position of the head and shoulders is determined not by 
the normal requirements of the first curve, but by the 
rotation necessary to make the turn and by the pose neces- 
sary to maintain the resulting curve. Thus, as a home 
exercise for ankle, head, and shoulder action 
in a forward three or rocker: stand in the po- 
sition for outside forward (Fig. 159). Keep 
the eyes fixed on some distant object, while rotating the 
left shoulder/orw^r^, (Fig. 
204), until just before the 
foot, if on the ice, would 
have to turn (the turn on 
the floor may be made by 
lifting the heel and letting 

Fd 4 R t ^ ie rotat ^ on °f tne shoul- 
*' ders pull the foot round); 

just before, or during the 
/'*' turn, draw the left shoul- 
'ri** <-jer back into position for 
the inside back edge, and 
134-Position for keep the eyes still fixed on 135-Position for 
Three or Rocker the same object, looking Bracket, Counter 
now over the left shoulder. 
This will help keep the tail of the three on the ice large. 
If, instead of inclining upon the inside edge 
back at the turn, the skater holds the body 
erect, and carries the heel round nearly 180 
drawing back the shoulder will then draw him on to the 
outside back, and the turn will be a rocker (Fig. 233) 
instead of a three (Fig. 231). 

Stand now in the same outside forward position, but 

instead of rotating the shoulders forward for the turn (Fig. 

134), rotate them backward (Fig. 135). The 

head will now have to follow the left shoulder 

round into the normal position for the back 

edges, which will be outside, if the heel is not lifted (a 

Counter, Fig. 234); inside, if the heel is lifted 

and carried well round and out at the turn (a 

Bracket, Fig. 232). 

"It is excellent practice," Wood says (p. 40), "to 

make the turns in front of a looking-glass without any 

skates on at all. By means of the glass, the beginner can 

see for himself that he gets into the correct body position 

for making the turn; and, making the turn on the carpet, 

he can see (as he cannot on the ice) that he secures the 

correct position for the new edge. He will find that the 





familiarity with the correct position which he thus gains 
will greatly assist him when on the ice." See p. 168. 

Get the differences firmly fixed in your mind, like the 
cautions in regard to your golf-strokes. Thus you will 
remember that for 

rof Threes and Rockers, the rotation is forward. 

rof Brackets and Counters, the rotation is backward. 

rif Threes and Rockers, the rotation is backward. 

rif Brackets and Counters, the rotation is 'forward. 

rob Threes and Rockers, the rotation is backward. 

rob Brackets and Counters, the rotation is forward. 

rib Threes and Rockers, the rotation is forward. 

rib Brackets and Counters, the rotation is backward. 

Fig. 136* will show the angle of shoulder rotation and 
the extent to which the ankle turning should be trained. 






» v 

* \ 


■W ' 



of Left \. 
5HOV1.0.ER '* . 
Poor OH THE E0&£ 






•J °* 



00 1 

U. t u. 1 


- -.'- 


*** s 

136— The Degree of "English," to be put on the Shoul- 
ders and Ankles in the performance of large 
Edges and Turns 

Another gymnastic exercise for opening the ankles is to 
stand on one foot and rotate the otherjrom the heel as far 
back as possible (Fig. 137, 1); or to stand as long as the 
muscles will permit with both heels and calves together 

(*Based on S. C. p. 20, kindness of Macmillan & Co. The 
line of the Rocker and Counter and the line of the Three and 
Bracket, however, should change places.) 


and the toes turned out as far as possible (Fig. 137,2). 
Even more practical is to walk forward toeing in as far as 
possible (Fig. 137, 3), and backward toeing out (Fig. 
137, 4). See "Skating without Skates," p. 165, ff. 

It is a wise precaution to get one's boots and skates 
ready early in the season; and practice like the above on 
an old carpet, with the skates on, will be found most helpful 
and economical in securing also that great essential, 


The acquisition of the balance required for large curves 
on the ice is not only no hindrance to the acquisition of the 
balance required for small curves, but an extraordinary 
saving of time and effort in the attainment of the ankle 
action and knack necessary for the graceful execution of 
continuous figures. It is easy to learn the balance re- 
quired for short curves after learning the balance required 
for long curves; but if beginners learn to skate with a 
violent swing of arms and leg, with head bowed down and 

f»8 1 \ 

137 — Practice for "Spread-Eagling" the Ankles 

knees bent, their progress will be slow and their form bad. 
"However, the beginner must not worry too much about 
style; style is too complex; but he should and must re- 
member that style depends very largely upon a thorough 
mastery of the elements upon true principles" (R. 68). 

The table* opposite (Fig. 138) will be of service to the 
beginner in testing his balance. If he finds himself off the 
approximate position indicated, and shifting unsteadily, 
he is warned that the attitude of the body above his feet 
must be incorrect. For the execution of large curves and 
turns, the carriage of the head and shoulders contributes 
most to the proper balance, the arms and unemployed leg 
being less active; for the execution of smaller curves and 
continuous figures, the head and shoulders are less active, 
and the proper balance is aided by the action of the arms 
and unemployed thigh, leg, and foot. 

*Based upon observations of the skating of Mr. A. F. Hul- 
bert, the first winner of the British Special Test. From M-W. 
pp. 66 and 239, by permission of A. D. Innes & Co.'s successors, 
Ward, Lock & Co., London. 



138— Shift of Balance in the Various Figures Bear- 
ing Surface of the Skate-blade 


A, In front of Travelling 


b Changes of Edge, contin- 
uous stroke; of Bracket. 
{ ib Loop; f Cross-Cuts and 
Beaks, end first forward 

B, Front Third 

C, Front Half. 



D, Back Half. 

All the f Turns (except of 

' ob and ib Edges; 
ob Loop; f Cross-Cuts, 
backward base; f and b 
Beaks, backward curves. 

of and if Edges; 
of and if Loops; f Cross- 
Cuts, forward curves; b 
Cross-Cuts, forward base; f 
and b Beaks, forward 

' All b Turns (except those 
below, on F); 
b Cross-Cuts and Beaks, 
end of first backward curve. 

f Changes of Edge, contin- 
uous stroke, ib Three, and 
b Brackets. 

BOOTS AND SKATES. See Primer, p. 9 

A good skater never wears straps or very sharp skates; 
and he never complains of weak ankles. Did you ever 
hear a skater complain of weak knees, or weak hips? 


His shoes, however, must not be too high, and must fit. 
The eyelets should go well down toward the toe, so that 
if the upper stretches, the edges may be brought together 
by tighter lacing. (Always carry an extra lacing.) A 
thick tongue, or a pad under the tongue, may render a 
loose shoe serviceable or a stiff one comfortable. 

E, Back Third. 

F, Behind the Travelling 



The difference between the two schools of skating has 
been due not only to national differences of temperament, 
but also to the difference in the skates used. Until within 
two or three years the English have used exclusively a 
right-angled blade ground to a 7-ft. radius, sometimes 
with concave sides (Dowler blades, narrow at middle and 
thicker at ends). Continental skaters use 5- or 53^-ft. 
radius skates, often with convex sides (blades Ji-in. thick 
at bearing point, tapering to }i~m. at ends). The flat 
skate contributes to a stable equilibrium, permitting large 
curves on unbent knee in a quiet pose; the sharp rock 
skate causes unstable equilibrium and requires a bent 
knee and a swing of arms and unemployed foot to main- 
tain balance on short curves. Salchow (Fig. 12) uses a 
parallel sided blade, flat in the middle for big curves and 
turns and sharper at both ends for loops, cross-cuts, and 
beaks. Most American rocker skates in stock patterns of 
all grades were ground to a radius of 4- or 43^-ft.! a fact 
which is alone sufficient explanation of the difficulty popu- 
larly associated with figure-skating, and for the persis- 
tence of the "weak-ankle" fiction. Beginners should not 
use a sharper rock than a 7-ft. radius. When the proper 
balance is acquired, one can make just as big curves and 
maintain just as accurate balance on a 6-ft. radius blade, 
and also can do the shorter rink curves and turns and con- 
tinuous skating much easier. For the new round-toed 
skates, see p. 140, and Primer, p. 10. 

The most serviceable single blade for all purposes is the 
new 6-ft. rpck, Barney & Berry Continental, or Interna- 
tional with an extra long outside toe-clamp. A self- 
fastening skate is useless for figure-skating, unless it has 
a universal sidewise adjustment; for the blade should 
be under the ball of the foot, not under the middle of the 
sole. A skate should not be much longer than the boot, 
even for "children to grow to." 

Messrs. Barney & Berry will supply you at a slight extra 
cost with a 7, a 6, or a 5-ft. radius blade; and at a reason- 
able price during the summer will grind your skates and 
re-nickel them in a thorough and workman-like manner. 
Never send a good pair of skates to a hardware shop or a 
repairer, to be ground on a small, coarse emery wheel; it 
may be cheaper and more convenient, but the blade is gen- 
erally left ro.ugh, — practically worthless for artistic skating. 

"Steel, if thou turn the edge, or cut not, I be- 
seech on bended knees thou mayst be turned in 
hobnails." — Shakespeare, 2 H. VI> 4, 10, 59. 



if Eight. Alex: v. Panschin, Russian Champion, 

Feb. 1900 

"Master o' the Rolls."— Henry VIIL 5, I, 35- 
"'Tis a good form." — Timon of Athens, I, I, 17. 

Gilbert Fuchs (Munich Skating Club), St. Peters- 
burg, 1896 

"In form and moving how express and admirable!" 

— Hamlet ,2, 2, 317 


rob Spiral "Alesaiider,"*A. Panin, in the Yusupov 
Garden, St. Petersburg, 1897 

"The great swing and rudeness of his poise." 

— Troilus and Cressida, I, 3, 208. 

lob. F. Otto, Berlin Skating Club, Jan. 14, 1900 

"He apprehends a world of figures here, 
But not the form." — / Henry IF> I, 3, 210. 

"His arms spread wider than a dragon's wings." 

— / Henry VI, I, 1, n. 



Brief Hints and Cautions for Use on the Ice. 
With References to the Best Literature for 
Detailed Descriptions and Illustrations 

Note. — It is taken for granted that the reader can do 
plain skating and the lap-foot circles, and has read of 
Part I at least pages 14, 28, 40, and of Part II, about the 
Elements and Strokes, especially pages 68-74, 

OjTI'Oi Tlat 

. A* 



Abbreviations: b = Backward; f = Forward; 1 = 
Inside Edge; o = Outside Edge; l = Left Foot; r = 
Right Foot; rof = Right Outer Forward; lib - Left 
Inner Backward; Empl. = Employed, foot on the ice; 
Unempl. = Unemployed, foot off the ice. B = Bracket; 
C = Counter; Ch = Choctaws; M = Mohawks; R =■ 
Rocker; S = Serpentine, or Change of Edge; 3 = Three- 
Turn; + = Cross Stroke (f, in Front; b, Behind); X = 
Scratch Stroke (f, behind, usually outside edge, = Re- 
verse On to Richmond, 4; b, in front, usually inside edge, 
= On to Richmond). For abbreviations to books, etc., 
see pp. 18, 19, 20, 21. 

Observe that the thrust is made when 
the feet are at an angle of about 45 . (Figs. 
140 and 141.) If Do not thrust off the toe, 
as in walking. Observe also that progres- 
sion on the ice is made not only by thrust- 


\ S vtr-\ 

' ) [ \ J 

142 Lap-Foot Circles— 143 

r^ >=S* ing with one foot and sliding on the other, 

141 but also by crossing one foot over the other 

and sliding on each in turn (Figs. 142 and 143), — both 

ways in curved lines on the edge of the blade. One of the 

requirements of the American schedule (No. 1, Plain 


Skating) is skating on the flat of the blade (Fig. 144). 
This requires great nicety of balance, for it allows neither 

thrust nor edge. Observe that the 
motive power, then, must come en- 
tirely from the momentum imparted 
by the swing of the body. The com- 
bination of this momentum with an 
edge instead of with the flat of the 
skate, without obvious thrust, is the 
proper motive power of the most 
graceful and easy figure-skating. 
This combination may be best 
learned from an easy two-foot move- 
ment, called the two-foot Serpentine, 
of Sculling (Fig. 145). Rotate the 
shoulders, and shift the weight from 
one foot to the other — to the right 
foot when the right shoulder goes forward, to the left 
foot when the left shoulder goes forward; at the same 
time tilt the body f and b as in walk- 
ing, but instead of taking the feet up 
alternately, slide on both feet, inside 
edges. Prolong the slide, and just as 
the forward inside edges are catching 
the power (near the heel) the other 
edge will become the flat of the blade 
(Fig. 146). Slide still longer, until the 
lobes intersect 
i47)-turn the 

144 — On the Flat 

u.r m.F 


and the flat will become 
you will be skating both 
edges at once. (The 
the diagram indicates 
the skater in Fig. 148 is 
LJafter catching power; 
L to R, just before catch- 
you have acquired good 
twist of the left shoulder 

(Fig. Two-Foot: 
ankle Serpentine 

outside edge, and 
inside and outside 
thickened line in 
the power edge; 
shifting from R to 
in Fig. 147, from 
ing power.) When 
speed, a backward 
Fig. 147, will 

147 — Intersecting Two-Foot Serpentine 


pull the left foot off the ice, and you may continue on 
the rif in good form (Fig. 149). " A similar twist at t, 
Fig. 147 (without English, p. 81), will give 
you a lof (Fig. 150). 

The backward edges on one foot may be 
developed in the same way from a backward 
two-foot Serpentine, same movements except 
that power is caught near the toe of the blade. 
These Serpentines may be skated with the 
feet tracking instead of parallel, but a much 
nicer balance is required. By throwing one 
foot out of line (Fig. 151), you 
may be encouraged to trust 
your entire weight upon the 
i§ other, and finally to lift one 
148 foot clear of the ice and con- 
Two-Foot tinue on a f or b edge on the 
Serpentine Qther foQt without thrust.^ 

A commoner way to learn the edges is to 

prolong the glide from a thrust. ^ Begin 

by learning to glide on one foot as long as 
you can. ^[ Learn the edges 
skating alone, depending en- 
tirely upon yourself, or only 
on the aid of a friendly 
hockey stick, held between two. skaters in 
front. 1[ Keep the unempl. turned down 
and out, near the ice, and behind the empl. 

150 — LOF 

Roll (Half-Circles). M-W. 70 4 ; MxW. 
106 31 ; B 67 13 ; S. C. 30 1 ; R 7- Keep 
center of gravity over the empl. by standing 
erect, with unempl. behind 
turned well out (Fig. 149)- 
Turn the toes well out and down 
(Fig. 9, p. 28) for the next 
stroke, which should be taken before the im- 
petus for the first curve is spent, and at right • 
angle to the line of progress (Fig. 152). 
^ Don't skate full front, with legs a-straddle, 
feet parallel (Figs. 153-4)- Primer, p. 28. 
Eight (Full-Circles). M-W. 818; MxW 
10822; B. 69 15 ; S.C. 33 8 - H Kee P vour e Y e 
on the center when skating to place in Eight 
(Fig. 155). See p. 75. Skate first circle of 
double Eight (Fig. 156) with empl. knee 
bent; then straighten it, and increase failing 151 _ Tr'king 
momentum by forward swing of unempl. into Serpentine 


position for next stroke. If Don't "un- 
wind" too soon — keep the unemployed back 
as long as possible. 


152— if Roll 

Right Figure 

153— if Roll 

Wrong Figure 


Wrong Position 

155— if Eight 

156 — if Double Eight 

Roll. M-W. 725; MxW. 114 25 ; B. 7424-5; S. C. 
3 1 1 ; R. 73, 76. Develop from lap-foot (Figs. 142-3), 
or cross-step (Fig. 137, 3), turning toes well in, which 
compels an outside edge in full half-circle (Figs. 157-8). 
If Don't push from the toes. See p. 139. 
^> * To acquire good balance 

and strong, large curves 
on plain roll, English the 
shoulders (Fig. 159) and 
look over empl. shoulder 
(Fig. 160). If you swing 
the unempl. foot (Figs. 
161-162), If don't carry 
it high or far in front of 
empl. Bring the empl. 
■ quietly forward (the cor- 
• responding shoulder with 
it); and, looking in the di- 
rection in which you are 
going to strike, turn over 
on to the inside edge and 
strike immediately, without Serpentine. If Don't kick, or 
curl up the unemployed behind. Cf. Primer, bottom p. 26. 




Eight. Fig. 10, No. i, p. 29. M-W. 72 s ; MxW. 
11626; B. 7322, 762«-7; S. C. 33 9 ; R- 73- Easiest 
as a Cross-Roll. MxW. u8 2 », 121 31 ; B. 7i-9«-»»; 
S. C. 38. TT For double circle, don't "wind up" too 
soon — keep the unemployed back as long as possible. 

159 — Shoulders side wise. 
Quiescent unemployed 
foot. (English.) 

160 — Shoulders sidewise. 
Head looking over em- 
ployed shoulder. 

For these eights in the Inter- 
national style, see pp. 141-2 
and 175, the New Skating p. 
15, and Primer, p. 26 ff. 


Livti or 



161— Outside Edge Roll 

162 — Shoulders and head 
full front. Free swing- 
ing unemployed foot. 
See Frontispiece. 


Fig. 163. M-W. 77 7 ; MxW. 117; S. C. 40; R. 
74. Roll. Best learned from an inside forward three 
(Fig. 207), or practice step, Fig. 137, 4, walking back- 
ward. The stroke from the strict outside back is from a 
bit of final inside; but the roll is usually skated with a 
kind of cross stroke, only one foot is dropped > heels out, 
into position on the traveling edge, not across, but exactly 

behind the other, the body swing from ob to ob being quite 
sufficient to supply momentum, without any thrust. The 
transition step is illustrated in Figs. 164-5. Do not hurry. 
Throw yourself well on to the traveling edge boldly at the 
start. ^[ Don't cross unemployed too far over. 


ob, Just Before 


163— ob Roll 


ob, Just After 


Eight. B. 76-928-83, s. C. 38, M-W 81, MxW. 
118, R. 76. This Eight is hard to skate to place, be- 
cause it is difficult to see where you are going, — and hard 
to make large, because the stroke is not strong. T[ If you 
find yourself curling into the center too soon looking over 
L shoulder, get off the hard edge by turning the head until 
you can see center over the r shoulder, and then change 
back (W. 22). See also p. 176 and Primer t p. 29. 

Roll. M-W 74-7, MxW 11023; B. 70"; S. C. 36; 
R. 72-3; W. 21. Easiest to learn from a forward-three 
(Fig. 205). Hardest edge to 
perfect, especially in Eight, 
because a powerful stroke is 
difficult. If unempl. is carried 
behind, toes down and out, 
head turned in direction of 
progress (Figs. 167, 205), 
this position must be aban- 
doned at the stroke. Some 
American skaters (like Mr. 
Evans), therefore, advise 
carrying the unempl. in front 

all the time. Seep. 141, 177 fF. 167-ib Roll, 


M-W. 827; MxW. no 24 ; B. 81*8. In the 

166 — ib Roll, 


double circle Eight, the unemployed must be kept in front 
as long as possible. In a large single Eight there is time 


to carry the unemployed back. Fig. 166 shows an awk- 
ward stroke, feet apart, chiefly by body swing; the unem- 
ployed is then slowly carried back into position (Fig. 167) 
until the curve is at right angle to line of progress; then 
it is put down parallel with the employed; and if kept 
close to it, may receive strong thrust from the employed 
as it leaves the ice. But at best, it is a very awkward and 
difficult movement. If The flatter the body is "Eng- 
lished" — to get the line of shoulders and skate parallel — 
and the farther the head is turned in the direction of mo- 
tion, the easier to hold the curve out (W..22). See also 
p. 135, and Primer ; p. 30. 

"The vilest stroke." — Shakespeare, King John, 4, 3, 48. 


168 — Change of Direction on Two Feet 

1. On Two Feet. The progression of the body 
in Fig. 168 is in a general Serpentine line from A to B; 
if at C, when nearly all the weight is on the left inner 

edge, the body is 

given a half-turn by 

the rotation of hips 

and shoulders (as- 
sisted perhaps by 

the arms) the direc- 
tion, of the skates is 

thereby changed 

from f to b. If, now, 

this turn or Three* 

is inserted at the 

right time in a Chain- 

Serpentine, Fig. 169, 

the result is the 

simple Grapevine 
169— Chain (Fig. 171). Observe 

the edges and the 
alternation of the leading foot 
in 169 and in 170 — a combina- 
tion in an Eight of 168 and 169. 
The secret of 

*"Fit for her turn, which the base vulgar do call 
'Three/ " — Shakespeare, T. S., i, 2, 170, L. L. L., 1, 2, 51. 




The Grapevine 

Is a semi-circular swing of the body above the hips, which 
perpetuates the momentum generated by the pull of the 

171 — The Simple Grapevine 

heels together (exaggerated in the Scissors, Figs. 172-3), 
and the push of the toes (exaggerated in the Chinese 
Grapevine, Figs. 174-5) according to 
the diagrams which, followed carefully 
on the ice, will serve bet- 
ter than any description. 
(But Cf. M-W. 263 »»; 
MxW. i84"3 j B. 129- 
32U8; M. 7930). Get up 
speed with a Chain Ser- 
pentine, right foot lead- 
ing, and insert a turn 
from forward to back- 
ward. The secret of suc- 
172 — The Scissors — 173 cess is in the temporary 
awkward position of the feet at A, Fig. 171, heels together, • 
the right just after the turning, the left just before. Now 
while the right foot catches power with a strong edge near 
the toe (aided by a backward twist of the right shoulder), 

•flip on f *— 


174 — b Chinese Grapevine 175 — f Chinese Grapevine 


the left, receiving most of the weight of the body, acts as a 
pivot, turns slowly backward, and follows the right in a 
cross serpentine line. The right, now changed to ob, slows 

up, and allows the 
left, while changing 
to ib, to pass it. 
Then comes the 
176— The Rail Fence (a compressed more difficult turn, 
Single Grapevine) frQm backward tQ 

forward. The right foot turns first, and the secret of suc- 
cess is in the temporary awkward position of the feet at B, 
toes in. Aided by a forward thrust of the right shoulder, 
the right foot catches power near the heel; and the left, re- 
ceiving most of the weight, acts as a pivot, turns slowly 
forward, and follows the right as at the start. If the left 
foot precedes the right, the progression will be made from 
left to right, instead of from right to left. When this 
grapevine is perfected, it may be skated more easily and 
gracefully all on the outside edge. 

*Li# »* M*0% 





Double Grapevines: 177, with flip of foot — three-point; 
178, with loop inside; 179, with loop outside; 180, with 
double loop. 

A whole revolution of the body produces the Double 
Grapevine (M-W. 2648*; M. 8o»; MxW. 18s 144 - 5 ; 
B # 1 3 3119-20). (Figs. 177-9.) A revolution and a half 
produces the variety illustrated in Fig. 180. The flip of 
the foot of Fig. 177 is characteristic of the Philadelphia 
Twist (Fig. 181, M-W. 266*; M. 833*; MxW. 187 146 ; 


181— Philadelphia Twist 

B. 134 121 ). In Fig. 182, the rotation of the body above 
the hips is just going to carry the right foot round, assisted 

by a flip of the ankle, — 
the complete revolution 
leaving four points up. If 
at the first grapevine turn 
(A,Fig.i83) the left foot 
is turned first (Fig. 184) 
and the right swings 
round parallel with it by 
a half revolution of the 
body, the points C D will 
be inside A B. If the 
curve A B intersects C D 
(as it will, if the turns are 
made with the legs wide 
apart) the result is the 
Scissors Grapevine (not, 
the Scissors, Fig. 172). 
Fig. 183, made with the 
rof crossed over the lif 
182 — Philadel- and turning first at C in- 184— Left Foot 
phia Twist st ead of at A, the lif Turning First 

turning at A instead of at 

C, is the Pennsylvania Grapevine (M-W. 265 s5 ; M. 
83 s3 ; MxW. 190 149 ). For other varieties of Grapevine, 
see page 102. 

183 — Four-point Grapevine 
II. From One Foot to the Other. /. Without 

change of edge, Mohawks, "the Spread Eagle in Solu- 
ion." M-W. 119 20 ; MxW. 12233; B. 7934; S. C. 6022; R. 
89 15 ; W. 37. Start on a firm, large outer edge forward, 
right foot; flatten 
(English) the shoul- 
ders into the plane 
of the right skate 
by carrying the left 
shoulder way back; 
turn the toe of the left 
foot as far out as pos- 
sible (Figs. 189-90). 
By a gentle tilt of the body, shift the weight from the right 






foot to the left (Fig. 191). If your shoulders are flat 
enough, the left foot will be in position to drop neatly on 


Forward Mohawk 


Forward Mohawk (showing 
unemployed foot) 

to the outside edge back behind the right foot, which then 
becomes the unemployed. 

Put only the toe of the skate down first; the body will 
then give the rest of the foot its correct direction in nearly 
the same curve as that ^**X 

of the first edge (Fig. 
192). If, however, 
you start your first 
outer edge with a nat- 
ural forward rotation 
of- the left shoulder, 
you cannot shift to 
the other foot without an awkward jump, or without put- 
ting both feet on the ice at once; but this is an alternate 
foot figure. . See Primer, p. 43. 

To do the if Mohawk (Fig. 186), place lib behind 
the rif alongside, and with the feet thus locked, shift the 
weight as before. This is a common stroke in hand-in- 
hand skating. (Cf. the familiar Spy Pond Polka, p. 62, 
OFig. 90, b). The back Mohawks (Figs. 1.87- 
8) are familiar strokes from ob to of and 
ib to if, which are made easier if, just before 
the stroke, the body is turned very much 
rof lob roun d in the direction of motion (W. 40). 
192 b If> in doing a rof Mohawk, you rotate 

Amerikaner the l shoulder, hip, and leg so far back as to 
or Continen- force a turn, by lifting the r heel you can 
tal Mohawk get a strong thrust from a short rib on to 
the lob. This vigorous stroke is the "Amerikaner" of 
Continental skaters, which they got from Callie Curtis in 
1869 (see p. 58). It seems very improbable that it did not 


occur at once to the American, or to his foreign imitators, 
to prolong the rib and skate the movement all on one foot 
— the f Bracket, — but we have no printed record of a 
Bracket until 1880! See pf 48. Cf. pp. 155 ff., 186 ff. 


197— Choctaw 

( Showing unemployed foot.) 

193— of 194— if 195— ob 196— ib 

2. With Change of Edge, Choctaw s. M-W. 122 21 ; 

MxW. rip*; B. 8186; S. C. 61; R. 89, W. 37. 

If the left is put down in the same way as in the Mohawk, 

only on the inside edge back (Fig. 197), the figure is the 

forward Choctaw. 
There are four Choc- 
taws (Figs. 193-6). 

The back Choctaws 
(Figs. 195-6) are fa- 
miliar strokes ob to 
if, ib to of, used in 
connecting f and b 
Threes. Fig. 85, p. 60. 
If the unempl. is 
carried around in 
front and put down, 
toes in, not perhaps, 
without a slight jump 
the result is the awk- 
ward connecting 
199— Cross Choctaw stroke called the 

Cross Mohawk, Fig. 198, without change of edge, and the 
Cross Choctaw, Fig. 199, with change of edge. 

III. On One Foot — The Four Turns. Review the 
details of position, etc., on pp. 69-70. Remember that 
in all the turns the body must turn the feet, not the feet the 
body. Therefore, get into correct position on a steady edge 
and turn the body well round from the hips before making 



200 OF 20I IF 

202 OB 

203 IB 


the turn; and simultan- 
eously with the turn 
assume correct position 
for the second curve, 
which should be in the 
general line of the first 
curve^ not curled in at 
the end of it. 

of Three 

2d Curve ib 

1. Threes. (Figs. 200-3). For position, see page 70 
and Figs. 204-8. Cf. pp. 143, 180, New Skating, p. 21. 

I. OP. Fig. 200. (M-W. 89-93; MxW. 133 58 ; B. 
84*8; S. C. 36"; R. 80; W. 25.) The chief difficulty is to 
keep the second curve large. % Don't hurry the turn; draw 
the l shoulder back and look over it simultaneously with 
the turn, or just before it; and keep the unempl. behind, 
with toes turned out and down. If Don't get too hard on 
the inside edge, or travel too far 
back on the heel of the skate. 
Skated together in field (B.87. 40 ; 
S. C. 39; Sp. E. 147 45 ), or eight 
(Fig. 10, No. 3; B. 87«; S. C. 
4112; w. 24-6; SpE. 14846-8; H. 
28 s ), the feet must be Spread- 
Eagied heel to heel, in order to 
connect the curves (Cf. Figs. 
I9S-6)' The momentum on the 
new edge is given by the sway of 
the body. Cf. p. 181, Primer, 

P- 35- 

I. F. Fig. 201. (M-W. 87-89; 
MxW. 13 156; B. 8945; S. C. 
of Three 39; R. 82; W. 25.) The chief 
1st Curve of difficulty is to hold a long, 
steady curve before the turn. 
Tf Don't bring turn too soon by rocking too far forward on 
blade, or swinging unempl. (Fig. 206.) Immediately 
after the turn let head follow left shoulder round as it 
draws unempl., toes down and out, behind empl. (Fig. 
207, just started round.) In skat- 
ing to. a large eight, after the turn, 
keep the eyes fixed on center over 
the r shoulder as long as possible — 
then turn head slowly and look for 
it along over the l shoulder, the 
correct position for ob (W. 26). 
Cf. p. 181 and Primer, p. 38. 

O. B. Fig. 202. (M-W. 95 ; 
MxW. 13459; B. 8943-4; S. C. 
45; R. 81; W. 28.) The main 
difficulty is to hold a strong if edge. 
•J Don't tilt forward on to the toe 
of the skate, but keep erect and hold 
unempl. well back. The turn 
must be made by conscious 
effort, — the foot cannot be 
left to curve round of itself as 
in f Threes. See p. 183 and Primer, p. 38. 

I. B. Fig. 203. (M-W. 93 13 ; MxW. I32&7; S. C 


if Three" 

1st Curve if 

if Three 

2d Curve ob 

46"; B. 9o«-»; R. 82; W. 28.) The most difficult 
turn of all. Get hard on the edge and turn head and 
shoulders well round before the turn (Fig. 208). Throw 
weight far back on heel of skate, turn toes out with brisk 
muscular effort, ,.. r ,..,. 

and swing unem- 
ployed gently 
around f and then 
back again into 
place for of. (For 
back threes to cen- 
ter— S. C. 6223-4,— see Fig. 85.) 

In order to make these turns clean, there 
must be no sliding on the flat of the skate dur- 
ing the transition from one edge to the other* 
In Fig. 209, 1, there is a scrape in getting from 
of to the flat; in 2, in coming off the flat on to 
in 3 there is a scrape during the turn 

209— "Skidding" at the 


tion just t he ib; 

ib Th^ee 1 b° tn m coming off the of and getting on to the 
ib ("dull skates!"); in 4, the balance is right 
and the turn clean (R 81). See Primer, p. 37. 

Two Turns, or Double Threes 

An even number of turns brings the skater upon his 
originaj edge; an uneven number of turns upon the other 
edge in the other direction, of two turns end with the 
difficult ib Three, and are therefore harder 
to skate than three turns either in field, 
M-W. 106; S. C. 48; SpE. 153 54 , or 
in eight (Fig. 210), MxW. 137 s3 ; B. 
9450; S. C. 49; SpE. i5o5°-3; H. 28*. 
Alternate ob two turns are not difficult, 
if the unempl. is kept back after the first 
210 — Double- turn; but alternate ib two turns are most 
Three Eight difficult to connect, without either a short 
change of edge or a scratch stroke. See p. 183, Primer, 

P- 39- 

Multiple Turns, or Chain Threes 

In field, M-W. 106; MxW. 139 64 - 6 ; B. 94. In 
eight, SpE. 169 77 . In chain threes, the rotation of the 
head and shoulders and the swing of the arms are continu- 
ous, — only the balance shifting from toe to heel, accord- 
ing as the turn is forward or backward. Started of, the 
rhythmic swing of Mr. J. F. Bacon's unempl. foot, — 
outward, aiding the forward curve (with a vigorous turn- 
ing out of the empl. on the heel) and inward, forcing the 
backward curve (with a vigorous pull in of the empl., on 
the toe), produces as harmonious effect as the goldfinch's 
combination of his song and serpentine flight; and started 
if, the vigorous but graceful back threes in the air of Mr. 


Herbert S. Evans' unempl., produce a more quiet but no 
less harmonious effect. It would take a biograph series 
to do justice to either: they must be seen to be appre- 
ciated. Fig. 211 represents Mr. Bacon just starting on a 
new chain, of; Fig. 212, the unempl. just coming down to 
help the turn of to ib, and Fig. 213, the beginning of the 
ib. With this rhythmical scissors-like open and shut of 
the legs, the curves of course are short, but the action is 
full of life and grace. 





211 212 213 

Random Shots at J. F. Bacon's Chain Threes 

Before taking up the other turns, we must consider 
briefly another important movement, which should be 
perfected in combination with these threes first. 

The Four Serpentines. Figs. 214-217, M-W. 83-4; 
MxW. 125-30; B. 98-100; S. C. 34-s, 42-3; R- 
75; W. 23. The change of edge on both feet has 

already been illus- 
trated (p. 78 ff.) 
On one foot, the 
change from inside 
to outside is easier 
than from outside 
to inside. IT- Just 
at the moment of 
balance-shift, turn 
empl. toe outward on of and inward on if; on ib, turn 
the heel in, and on rob, English the shoulders still flatter 
and look over, not merely along, l shoulder. 

To change the edge on short curves (Fig. 218) with 
a swing oj the unempl. (Fig. 219), is not difficult, provided 
the shoulders are kept well flattened through both changes 
and the downward swing is accurately timed with a strong 
turning out of the ankle; but to change the edge on long 
curves, as above, by a simple tilt of the body into position 





for the second edge without jerk or swing, and with steady 
edge at and after the change, is by no means easy; to 
change edge and gain pace and power at the same time is 
still harder, but it is the most useful stroke attainable, — 

218 — One-foot Serpentine, with Swing 

by it equilibrium is restored, falls are Obviated, power and 
momentum are recovered, and continuous skating made 
possible. The principle is the restoration of a wilfully 
destroyed equilibrium by a push off and glide on the same 

foot. Thus, Fig. 220, at the moment 
of the change, riof, lean so far over 
to the left that in order to keep from 
falling, just as you turn your bicycle 
wheel in, so you must turn your toe 
sharply in, thereby shortening the 

219 — Continuous One-foot Serpentine 
Change of Edge, with swing. The 
swinging foot is of course only mo- 
mentarily in this awkward position. 
Note the side wise shoulders, a posi- 
tion essential to success in this fig- 
ure, and in many others. * 

curve and restoring equilibrium; at the same time, by a 
sharp bite and push from the ice with the empl. foot at the 
heel, catch up with the body and, assisted by a gentle 
swing of the unempl. leg, rotate the body from l to r and 

[For more approved 
positions see pp. 147, 
178, New Skating, p. 
19, Primer, p. 32. 

22ft — riof Change 221 — roif Change 

straighten it into position for rof. The thickened portion 
of the diagram (Figs. 214-17) indicates this important 
power edge, at which the empl. knee is well bent. 


T[ Do not kick the unempl. too vigorously, and do not 
bend it as much as in the illustration (Fig. 220), which 
was consciously skated into the focus of 
a small camera. T Use thigh and ankle 
muscles, and employ shoulders and arms 

The ob change (Fig. 222) is similar — 
the body falls to one side and behind the 
empl. foot, which, to restore equilibrium, 
is quickly turned, and by a sharp bite 
and push near the toe is brought up 
under the body, which is then rotated 
and straightened into position for IB. 
222-loib Change Nothing further need be s'aid of the 
other two changes, except that they should be practised 
until they can be done on each foot, both ways, in all the 
forms of Fig. 223 up to 'the one-foot continuous eights. 
(Continued on p. 114.) See New Skating, p. 19. 

223 — One-foot Serpentine in Field and Eight" 


M-W. 96-10314; MxW. 15694-7; b. 98-10366-9; 
S. C. 4213, 47; R. 88 14 . But long before that stage is 
reached,the difficulty of even the simple continuous move- 
ment in field may be 
B relieved by the inser- 
tion of a turn. Thus, 
foop after the change is 
made from if to of 
(Fig. 221), instead of 
Englishing the left 
shoulder back for a 
long rof, utilize its 
forward rotation in the execution of a f three to 
the rib, bending the empl. knee slightly and gently swing- 
ing the unempl. This is the if Q, in field (Fig. 224); 

224— if O's 

225 — of 


in eight, Fig. 225, (Sp. E. 162^; Cf. Fig. 10, No. 12.) 
The of Q is made in the same way, but of course with 
the opposite rotation for the if three. 

The ob Q is the more difficult, because the back change 
is more difficult; but it throws the skater hard on to the 
IB, and if he is quick to take advantage of the rotation, by 
an acceleration of the l shoulder round, with correspond- 
ing swing of arms and turn of head, and a sharp turn out 
of the empL, almost pivoting on the heel, he will have less 
difficulty than usual with the difficult inner back three. 
The ib Q will now present no special difficulties. 


M-W. "104-616; 
S. C. 44,47- The 


226 — if Reverse Q's 


MxW. 157 98 - 101 ; B. 103-570-3; 
three comes first, then the change, 
Fig. 226. T Do not 
generate too much 
rotation at the turns. 
Keep tail of three as 
straight as possible, 
and at first exagger- 
ate the movements 
described on p. 92 in 

making the changes. 

227— if 



Get off your balance by strong inclination, and oiyi-Ti q 
then recover equilibrium by strong push from Eight 
bended knee and by vigorous turning out or in 
of the foot, on heel or toe. Fig. 227 is a Reverse Q Eight. 
See Fig. 10, No. 41. Fig. 228 is a Reverse Q combined 


228— The Spectacles 229— Double Shamrock 

with a Q, almost a new element. See Fig. 91, and Fig. 
357, Nos. 9-12. Fig. 229 is the double-three Spectacles. 
Fig. 230 is the continuous Spectacles. 

230 231 232 233 234 

Continuous Spectacles Three Bracket Rocker Counter 

These Q's and Reverse Q's may be made with any of the 
other turns, which may now be resumed. Remember the 
distinctions in rotation and edge, p. 71. Cf. Figs. 231-4. 


COUNTER-THREES (Sec also p. 186) 

(For general movement and position, see p. 7°- The 
descriptions here given are for long curves: for short 

curves, the turns may 
• be made by a twist of 
the ankle with almost 
no movement of the 
head, and with brisker 
movements of shoul- 
ders and arms. See 
Fig. 242 and p. 151.) 

1. RIF. Fig. 236. 

(M-W. 117; MxW. 

R. 86; W. 33.) The 

235 236 





B. 95 55 ; S. C. 57 20 ; 
easiest, especially if unempl. is carried forward just before 
turn. Screw the body until the l shoulder leads, forcing 
the toes in; then lift 
the heel, turn the foot 
180 , and draw the l 
shoulder quickly back 
into position for rob. 239 OF Bracket 

2. ROF. Fig. 235. (M-W. 117; MxW. 180128; 
B. 96"; S. C. s82i; R. 86; W. 32.) The chief 
difficulty is to hold the ib edge. T Keep the empl. well 
back (Figs. 239-40); get the body into position for the 
second curve before the turn by looking well back over the 
L shoulder; then throw the heel round, but don't lift it too 
high, and draw the unempl. into position for ib. Fig. 241 
is taken just before the unempl. is drawn around. (These 
positions are not erect and quiet enough — the curves are 
small, owing to the narrow field cov- 
ered by the camera to which they 
were skated). Feel the toe at turn. 

3. IB. Fig. 238. (M-W. 118; 
MxW. 180127; B. 97; S. C. 58 21 ; 
W. 34.) English l shoulder as far 
back as possible and turn the empl. 
heel in, forcing the curve. Get the 
turn as far back on the skate as pos- 
sible and swing the arms if neces- 
sary, across the breast. 1f Don't 
lean forward at turn. Feel the heel. 

4. OB. Fig. 237. (M-W. 118; 
MxW. 189™; B. 97; S. C. S8; oF ^J ket 

of Bracket W - 33-) Screw shoulders round 2 d c'rve ib 

until r leads, forcing the curve; 
make turn briskly on the extreme heel, and draw l shoul- 
der quickly back into position for if. This is the hardest 
of the brackets, Fig. 242. They are all more violent when 


thus skated alone; they are much easier in combination 
(Figs. 90, 99), or when skated with a partner (Fig. 332). 
Fig. 243 is the Eight brackets in a horizontal Eight. For 

243— The Eight Brackets 

Bracket-Q, see Fig. 10, No. 
15; and Reverse Bracket-Q, 
Fig. 10, No. 43. 

"She's apt to learn, and 
thankful for good turns." 
— Shakespeare, T. S., 2, 1, 

242 — One-foot Bracket Eight See further pp. 155, 186. 

(M-W. 109-13"; 
ff„ 114 80 - 3 ; S. C. 

The chief difficul- 
ty with Rockers, is 
to hold the second 
edge. H Do not bend 
too much, thereby 
causing a straying of 
the unemployed and 
the arms, which will 
produce too much 

MxW. 166-177 118 - 21 ; B.. 107 

5 116-7; R. 83-4 8 - 10 ; W. 29-31.) 





rotation at turn. 1 Acquire courage to throw the em- 
ployed round 180 or more 
hard on to the required travel- 
ing edge. T[ Don't turn the 
head — keep it looking in the 

. direction of motion, both be- 

ifore and after the turn. 

Rocking turns (Figs. 244- 
7) rotate like threes, brackets 
and counters, counter to 
threes. For example, start on 
this same right outer forward 
but carry the employed for- 
ward (Fig. 248) in- 
stead of back (Fig. 

248 -of Rocker 

1st Curve 97 

249-of Rocker 

2d Curve 

204 or 159). Slowly describe a three in the air with the 
upper part of the body, but not with the foot; the left 
shoulder is now leading — the body must turn: instead 
of falling upon. the inside back as in the 
three, draw the left shoulder back, carry 
the right heel by sharp muscular effort as 
far round and out as possible so as to catch 
the outside back edge, look back hard over 
the left shoulder, and keep the unempl. 
foot inside the curve (Fig. 249; but Cf. 
pp. 152 ff. and 190 if. If you let it stray 
across, or if you generate too much rota- 
tion with your shoulders at the 
turn, you cannot hold the second 
edge without changing it or put- 
ting in a back counter (the best 
way to learn a back counter). 

This of is the hardest of the 
rockers; the rotation which is right 
for the turn is wrong for holding the second 
curve. It is much easier to do with a partner 
because each gives the other just the little prop need- 
ed to hold the second curve (Fig. in). This "floating 
rocker" is the most exhilarating turn on the ice. 

The outer back rockers are easiest, and 

may best be learned in combination with 

forward Mohawks (Fig. 92). Look as far as 

possible over unempl. shoulder, 

and turn unempl. foot down 

and out (Figs. 12 and 250). In 

large inside rock- 


ers, the first curve 
must be held 
sometime with 



«" 250 OB 


if Rocker 

after turn 

ib Rocker 

before turn 

the body swung 
round for the 
second curve, 
rif, unscrew rotation (Fig. 
251), head looking behind 
over left shoulder, em- 
ployed toe turned strongly 
in, and turn made on it; rib, screw rota- 
tion (Figs. 252-4), head looking behind 


ib Rocker 

at turn 

ib Rocker 

after turn 


over right shoulder, body upright, heel turned strongly 
inward and turn made on it. Figs. 252-4 represent a 
small ib Rocker and 251 a small if Rocker with vigorous 
action and strong inclination. The inside forward is 
easier than the inside backhand all are easier when skated 
fast. (See pp. 151 ff., 190 ff., and New Skating, p. 21 ff.) 


M-W. I 14^; MxW. I78 122 -5; B. 107 ff., II684-7; 

S. C. 54 18 - 9 ; R- 87; W. 35-6. The difficulty with 





*■ '<» Si 

Counters, Figs. 255-8, is not so much in 
holding the second curve as in making the 
turn. The ob Counter is the hardest turn 
on the ice, done in the English style. 

The position for each Counter is almost 259-of Counter 
identical with that for the corresponding just before 
bracket (compare Fig. 259 with 240). The unem P L goes up 
foot does not have to be turned so far round in if Counter 
as in if Bracket, but farther in ib Counter than ib Bracket. 
f Counters are made on the front, b Counters on the back, 
of the skate. 

IT The Counter rota- 
tion, forcing the curve, 
must be established well .-.* 

260-rof Counter, showing unempl. 

before the turn (Fig. 259), approach- 
ing which lean hard on the edge, 
almost off your balance, and throw- 
ing the unempl. forward in f Coun- 
ters (Fig. 260), and backward in b 
Counters, recover equilibrium with a 
vigorous acceleration of rotation for 
the second curve. See Fig. 261, the 
unempl. swinging back after the turn. 
The continuous stroke and swing 
make Counters much easier to skate 
to place as eights (Fig. 59) than 
rockers (Fig. 58). Observe that 
Counter like this is composed of 
261 — rof Counter forced curve plus a simple one; 

rocker of a simple curve plus 

after the turn 

forced curve. For Rockers and Counters without the 

forced curve, see p. 104. Figs. 262-5 »are Rocker and 

Counter-Q Eights 

and Reverse Q 

Eights (4 lobes). 

Two rockers and 

two counters may 

be expeditiously . 

skated in field on (A 

each foot, f and 

b, alternately. 

" Strange that 
desire should so 
many years out- 
live performance." 
—2. H. IV 2, 4, 

262 263 

Rocker Counter 
O Eights 

264 265 

Rocker Counter 
Reverse Eights 

M-W. 240-41 ; 

B. H7-18; SpE. 


MxW. 143- 50 ; 
154- 60 . See also Primer, pp. 40-42. 

1. On Two Feet. We have already, in the double 

grapevine, Figs. 179-80, described a loop with one foot 

and a three with the other. 

When you have mastered the 

Canadian Eight, Figs. 266-7, 

you may, by vigorous rotation 

of the shoulders and strong, 

flexible ankle action, describe 

loops with both feet, Fig. 268, 

(a) without change of feet, (b) 

with each leading in turn, — 

** chain-loops. 

Canadian 2. On One Foot. The 

Eight swing of the unempl. will aid 

the shoulders in reducing a 

curve of larger radius to one of smaller radius, 

— the essential of a loop. In order to come off the small 

radius curve back on to the large radius curve, the empl. 

knee which has been bent should be straightened and the 

balance shifted to the middle of the skate. This 


268 — Two-foot Loops 


straightening of the body will take the curl out of the tail 
of the loop, and facilitate the combination into rolls or 
eights on alternate feet, Fig. 10, Nos. 4, 30, etc. (See 
pp. 145, 183, New Skating, pp. 24, 25.) 

A Multiple Loop Combination by E. Syers, London. 

If double or multiple loops are to be skated, the rotation 
must be increased in forward loops by the vigorous turn- 
ing in, and in backward loops by the 
vigorous turning out, of the unempl. foot, 
knee, and thigh, see p. 1 16. In inner loops 
the unempl. describes vigorous parallel 
loops in the air; the ib loop, Fig. 269, is 
made far forward on the blade. See the 
various combinations in Fig. 10, Nos. 10, 
16, 18-20, 23, 30-32, and in the one-foot 
eights, Fig. 62 and Fig. 357, Nos. 38-44- 
Ringlets are round, usually intersecting 
and are made in the same way, only the 
unempl. foot is held lower. See p. 106. 
•- For other varieties of the loop see p. 45, 
269— ib Loops Nos. 34 and 35; and Fig. 357, Nos. 49-53- 

M-W. 242-461-4; MxW. 150-155, 286-291; B. 

1 19-123; Fig. 270. 

1. On Two Feet, without rotation or change of edge. 

In Fig. 270a, while one foot rests, knee strongly bent, 

the other describes an of ^\* 

counter-beak (Fig. 285, 

4), and so on alternately; 

in dyboxh feet are describ- 
ing counter-beaks togeth- 
er. Begun forward at the 

bottom, both the "Lily" 

tf,and the" Lilac'W, would 

be made with beaks (Fig. 

585, 1). Fig. 270&, is 

made, b or f, by two-foot 

inside counter cross-cuts; 

Fig. 270c, by two-foot 

outside counter cross-cuts. The above will be found 

excellent exercises for limbering the ankles. 


270— Two-foot Beaks and 
Counter Gross-Cuts 


The counter cross-cut on two feet can also be worked 
into the simple grapevine, Fig. 271, and the cross-cut into 
the Philadelphia Twist. Two-foot rockers and counters, 

-Counter Cross-Cut Grapevine (J. F. Bacon) 

inside and outside (which may be prolonged into beaks), 
may also be worked into grapevines, as in Figs. 272-6, 
selected from an infinite variety. 

Fig. 276 is drawn from MxW., p. 192, as a counter 
grapevine; but if the leading foot turned first and the 
following foot changed edge, it would be a rocker grape- 
vine, one foot tracking over the other. "Nothing actu- 







'L0 8 






» 9 T 


L!F /\\R0r 

• 273 275 276 

272, if Counter; 273, of Counter; 274-6, Spread-Eagle 

ally new in the way of grapevines, except this," adds Mr. 
Witham, "has been added to the above list since 1880." 
"He did not know Brady, Jenkins, and Story," writes 
Mr. Cook. "I have made quite a number myself, but 
some of them are 'caviare to the general.' One day a 
pun, suggested by a mispronunciation, set me on a quarter 







of a hundred plus one. I began with D-vine, — and went 
through the whole alphabet. . . . The very different 
things that one can do at the same time on one's two feet 
is very remarkable, and 
the combinations are 
very numerous. I recall a 
pretty jeu~d > esprit of Dr. 
Barron's. He cut one of 
his initials with one foot 
and the other initial with 
the other foot, at the 
same time. . . . Our trans- 
atlantic brethren seem to 
put too little value on the 
Inner Counter two-foot movements. It Outer Counter 

Grapevine 8 ig because the repertoire Grapevine 8 
given is rather meagre. As the one-foot figures are akin to 
melody, so the two-foot figures involve counterpoint" 

2. On One Foot. A double three is a complete rota- 
tion of the body by two half-turns of the foot (Fig. 46). 

By stiffening the ankle and re- 
ducing the length of the second 
curve, you can make the figure 
all on one edge (Fig. 279): the 
middle curve looks like inside 
edge, but is outside. By pro- 
longing the first curve, and 
poising the body directly over 
the empl., you can make the 
forced second curve straight 
(Fig. 280), and by prolonging 
the curves until they intersect, 
you have the cross-cut or Anvil, 
(Cf. p. 55.) The secret is to be 
well poised over your figure, 
and in forward cross-cuts to 
keep the unempl. foot back un- 
til after the first turn, then 
throw it forward while the 
empl. is going backward (Fig. 
282)- in backward cross-cuts to 
keep the unempl. forward un- 
til the first turn is made and 
then pull it backward while 
the empl. is going forward. 
The balance shifts from the 
extreme front of the blade in turns from f to b, to the 
extreme back of the blade in turns from b to f (see p. 73). 
By standing more erect and swinging the unempl. foot 
round gently and steadily near the ice, you can reduce the 






cross-cut to a little suspended hitch at the apex of an oval 
(Fig. 283): and finally, without any retardation of mo- 
tion, make a complete 
loop (Fig. 284). Like 
all the turns, there are 
eight loops and eight 
cross-cuts, four on each 
foot. For complicated 
combinations in Maltese 
crosses, see Fig. 357, 
Nos. 54-64, of which 
Nos. 59, 60, 61 are 
specialties of H. S. 

"Oddly poised 
In this wild action." 
—T C, 1. 3, 340- 
281 — Maltese Cross (J. F. Bacon) 


M-W. 244-24965-72; MxW. 297-301 249 - 273 ; B. 123- 
25102.7. If rockers and counters are skated, not as pro- 
gressive field figures, but more like cross-cuts, with strong 

12 3 4- S « 

285 — Beaks. Rockers and Counters, without any 
forced curves 

inclination and edge, the troublesome forced curve disap- 
pears and new skating elements appear. Again, the side- 
wise shoulders and spread-eagle ankles are essential to the 
attainment of the balance that enables a skater to let his 
foot get ahead of his body, forward or backward, come to 
a full stop, and by a strong push from the ice recover his 
equilibrium without any help from the unempl. leg, and 
with almost no rotation of the body. (See also p. 158.) 
If the second curve comes directly back over the first, 
the figure is called a hook (Fig. 29); if to one side, a 
rocker beak or V (Fig. 285, 1), or a counter beak or V 
(Fig. 285, 4). The introduction of rotation produces a 
variety of rocker and counter, which some skaters think. 




28 ) 


291 —Double 

the only legitimate rocking turn, because there is no 
forced curve (Fig. 285, 3, 6). A beak combined with a 

change of edge (a beak 

-Q) is called a pig's 

aNfcfl ear (Fig. 286). A 

I l combination of two 

1 I beaks produces other 

varieties of cross-cut — 
the curved (rocker-counter, crossing 
twice, Fig. 287), the counter cross-cut 
(counter-rocker, short cut, Fig. 288), the 
Swedish (counter-rocker, long cut, Fig. 
289), and the double (Figs. 290-92). The 
Diamond Cross-cut, Fig. 293, may be 
skated without a change of edge. The 
Star, Fig. 294, is a combination cross-cut, 
292— Double done on the flat. Fig. 295 is a Pig's Ear 
Cross-Cut Star by H. S. Evans; combined with 
threes, makes the Mill-wheel, Fig. 357, No. 36. 




293 — Diamond 


-Pig's Ear 


Swift & Clark, p. 61 ff; MxW. 295; B. 126™*-™. Com- 
plete revolutions on an edge (ringlet-spins), on the flat 
flat-foot and cross-foot spins, and two-foot whirls), and on 
the point (pirouettes). 

1. On Two Feet. Whirls. Start with both feet 
about thirty inches apart on inside edge, and with strong 
rotation of shoulders, arms extended, bring feet together, 
toes in, with or without alternate Serpentine push; or 


start with a vigorous forward three (Fig. 297), and on the 
backward curve put the other foot down, forward, toes 
in. Get on to the flat, stiffen the muscles, and accelerate 

rotation by bringing the 

arms down and in. The aim 

is to travel in a predetermined 

direction, or to settle into one 

spot and not travel at all. 

Turn in either direction, f 

start. In the early 6o's, 

Powers and Howard used to 

start the figure backward. 

Whatever beauty there is in 

it is solely in the rapid mo- 
tion — so rapid that the cam- 
era can hardly catch it. Fig. 

296, therefore, snapped half 


300 — lof Cross- 
foot Spin 

™hirl 0t wajr tnrou &h a 36-revolution whirl, can give 
only a suggestion of the motion, so attractive 
to the crowd. 

Cross-foot Spin, Fig. 298. Start rof; get on to the flat 
and cross the lob in front, heels first, and distribute the 
weight; or cross the lof, toes out, behind. Fig. 299. 
Repeat on left foot, Fig. 300 — four in all. 

297 298 299 

Two-foot Whirl Cross-foot Spins 

2. On One Foot. Ringlet-Spins from the four edges 
on each foot — eight in all. The start may be made (1) 
from a vigorous edge, 
the radius reduced by 
strong rotation of arms 
and shoulders and swing 
of unempl.; or (2) from 
a change of edge; or (3) 
more effectively, from 
a three, Figs. 301, 305- 
6. Correct balance and 
judicious manipulation 
of arms and unempl. 
leg, may produce rapid 
and effective ringlets. 

Don't get 
too hard on the edge, and keep 
the unempl. down. Compare 
the position of the unemployed in 


302 — lof Flat- 
foot Spin 

301— lib Ringlet Spin 
from a lof Three 

Figs. 301 and 302. 

Flat-foot Spins are ringlet spins so poised on the flat of 
the skates that the ice is bruised, not marked by the edge 
with loops or ringlets as in Figs. 303-6. They are begun 

303 304 305 306 

usually in the first way above. The easiest are rof turn- 
ing to the right, and lof turning to the left, Fig. 302. The 
unempl. is held high. The effect of lowering the unempl. 
is the same as of pulling the arms down in the whirls. See 

307-Pirouette 308-Figure Four Spin 

A. P. Lebedew, M. Rubenstein, 

St. Petersburg Montreal 

309-On both toes 

L. Servatuis, 
New York 

HiigeFs variation of this Figure Four Spin, p. 37. Charles 
V. Dodge, in the early 6o's, used to skate a combination 
spin: as the speed of a two-foot whirl slackened, he would 

310 — Toe Movements Skated at the American Cham- 
pionship Competition in New York, March 15, 1900 

jump on his toes and hold them in the ice until the feet 
wound around each other, Fig. 309; then drop back on to 
the blade and continue in a cross-foot spin. Almost all 
these spins may be finished by a rise upon the toes into a 
pirouette. See p. 201, and Primer, p. 48. 

Pirouettes. "In Pirouettes," writes the veteran profi- 
cient, Mr. Eugene B. Cook, "there is a vast field for 


311 — Alternate-foot Pirou- 
ette Eights 

experts. From every one of the Pivot-circle cardinal 
positions (p. 109), a pirouette can be made. One of the 
latest investigations of mine was into the possibilities of 

rising from various edges, f 
and b, to a pirouette, and 
on it making a half-turn, a 
full turn, and a turn and a 
half, etc., and coming down 
upon some predetermined 
edge. Mr. John Martin of 
the 'Empire City Skating 
Club' of New York, used 
to rise from an outside edge 
forward to a pirouette, make one complete revolution and 
then suddenly dropping his heel, shoot off deftly on the 
outside edge of the pirouetting foot. I do the movement 
readily backward, outside edge. To alternate executing 
the figure on one foot and then on the other requires ex- 
treme precision. (See Keane's field pirouettes, skated 
the whoje length of the St. Nicholas Rink, Fig. 3100). 
I found interesting combinations in double pirouettes — 
that is, in various positions upon the points of both skates. 
The legs are either uncrossed or crossed as the situation 
requires. A Spread Eagle of mine that I never got any 



312 — Russian (Finn) Back Pirouette Eight 

one to do was on the points of the skates on a back circle." 
(Cf. Figs. 309, 310&). . Callie Curtis, in the 6o's, could 
make several revolutions on the toe at the end of a one- 
foot eight and return to the eight without any interme- 
diate strokes or steps. (Cf. Fig. 311.) Curtis could also 
jump from one toe-spin to another. The Finns and 
Russians seem to be the greatest modern masters. See 
p. 63, and Fig. 312. 


Swift & Clarke, p. 59 ff; MxW. 292-3 ««-*; B. 127113.4. 
There are twelve cardinal toe-step positions, six on each 

1. rif circling around l toe a-straddle, inside. 

2. rib circling around l toe a-straddle, inside. 


3. rof circling around l toe, crossed behind. 

4. rof circling around l toe, crossed in front. 

5. rob circling around l toe, crossed in front. 

6. rob circling around l toe, crossed behind. 

Fig. 313 is No. 6, on the left foot. (L. A. Servatius.) 
The combinations of these simple toe steps are innumera- 
ble; e. g. start with No. i y turn it into No. 5, then into 
No. 2, and finish with No. 3. ^ In all of 
these figures make the circle complete in 
each step. "The pivot-circlings make a 
fine effect," says Mr. Cook again, "when 
the circling foot is far away from the 
pivot-foot, or when one sits down on the ^ 
heel of the pivot-foot. . . . One of my latest 
ideas was the substitution of one toe in 
the place of the other. The toes can be 
made to slip almost into the same hole — 
and often into it. There are many com- 
binations. Some interesting work can be 
done with one toe acting as a pivot, and 
the other foot, forward and backward, 
executing eights; and changing the feet Pivot Circling 
by substituting one toe as pivot in place of the other." 
The varieties of these combinations would alone fill a 
book. Figs. 314-22 are a few easy ones. L. Rubenstein 
skates many of the one-foot eight diagrams, Figs. 57-62, 
and 355-6 as pivot figures. See Brokaw's new book 
(1913), p. 83. 


314-22 — Pivot-Circle Figures 

The heel pivot figures are easier and even more numer- 
ous; they often leave effective pictures on the ice. Fig. 
323 is a variation of Callie Curtis' Star by Mr. E. C. Hil 1 


of Brockton. First describe a pivot circle, and jump clear 
of it. Then, with rif, describe curve AB at same time 

323— Heel Pivot Star 324— Bull of Tulnc 

that lif, near heel, marks line I to 2. Without stoppings 
on l heel as pivot at 2, swing Rir ffOfl 15 to C; dieii drop 

back on to lif edge 
and complete Star by 
repeating same move- 

326a— Heel Pivot 325— Ball of Twine 

ments, on both feet together, as in Fig. 323. By describ- 
ing curved instead of straight lines, with the l, as in Fig. 

3266— Pivot Trefoil 

324, you may space this 
Star into Mr. Hill's Ball 
of Twine, Fig. 325. Figs. 
326-8 are self-explanatory. 





Cf. pp. 65-67. Even pivot-circling can be performed 
by partners, e. g. join right hands, face to face, and start 
on the plain inside edge toe-step, left foot forward. Place 
the two pivot-toes as near together as possible and 
describe a complete circle with the left foot. Next do the 
outside edge toe-step forward, left foot behind, making a 
complete circle. Join hands again, and repeat the same 
movement. (Swift & Clark, p. 72.) See p. 205 ff., Primer, 
p. 44 ff. 

329 — 1, of Mohawk (Echelon); 2, Large of Three; 
3, Large if Three (side by side) 

All the turns can be learned easier hand-in-hand, and 
when learned can be so skated with greater speed and 
exhilaration. Cf. p. 62 and see Figs. 329, 339, reproduced 

330 — The Mohawk and ib Eight. (From H.H. 
of Longmans & Co.) 



by permission from T. Maxwel Witham's "System of 
Figure Skating," chap. xv. Horace Cox, London. 

331-338— Pair Skating. See also Figs. 105-8, 118-31 

331 332 

"Meal Sacks" (Boston Skating Club) 

331, with Mohawks; 332, with Brackets (side by side, 
or Echelon) . 

In 333> 334> 3 3 8, partners pass each other at the cen- 
ter; in 335 (Curtis and Goodrich Waltz) they come 
together at* and spread apart at f; 336 is f Mohawk, 
and ob Bracket Q, and forward; 337, if change Mohawk 

337 338 

and ob Three. In the same way, the following move- 
ments may be skated, most of them hand-in-hand. (For 
abbreviations, see p. 77.) 


34°, ROF M loib, rif, and repeat, lof M roib, lif. 

341, rof 3 ib, lob 33 ob, rof, and repeat on l. 

342, rif 3 ob Xlib, rif, and repeat on l. 

343, rof C ob Xlib, rif, and repeat on l. 

344, roifXlib 3 OF+RiF, and repeat on l. 

345, riof M lob Xrib Q,-and repeat on l. 

339 — 1, Rocker Scud; 2, Counter Scud; 3, Simultane- 
ous Rocker and Counter 

346, riof M lob +RIB, and repeat on l. 

347, rif B ob, lib, rif, and repeat on l. 

348, rof M lob Xrib 3, and repeat on l. 


kiob Xlib B of X, and repeat. Etc., ad infinitum. 


"Two persons through constantly skating together 
hand-inrhand, get so accustomed to each other that the 
slighest indication that a turn, a rocker, a Q, or a Mohawk 
is about to be executed by one side will be responded to by 
the other, and it is astonishing how many figures can be 
interwoven one with the other. All the skating club 
figures (combined) can be skated hand in hand, but they 
are rendered more easy if the partners stand sideways and 
hold each other by one hand only. The art is for the left- 
hand partner to get well to the front, when turns on the 
rof are to be executed, and similarly the right-hand part- 
ner, when turns are on the left foot. Great help can be 
given by one to the other, by a judicious pull at the right 
moment, and when this pull is to be given, is only to be 
ascertained by practice together, but the pull will always 
be given by the skater who is on the inside of the curve 
described. The outside skater, who is pulled, enjoys the 
fun most, as he is brought round with a swish that is 
delightful, but the next movement will probably reverse 
the order, and the skater, who in the first movement was 
on the inside of the curve, will now be on the outside. This 
hand-in-hand skating, although greatly advanced since 
1880, is still in its infancy; and I quite expect to see great 
progress made in the next few years in this fascinating 
form of the art." (MxW. 285). See some new designs, 
pp. 216, 219, 220. 

In this country, pair-skating will probably soon regain 
its former popularity; but neither is likely soon to sup- 
plant individual skating, which now alone remains to be 
considered, in its most difficult form. See p. 205 ff. 


{Continued from page Q3.) 

M-W. 251-9 73 - 7 ; MxW. 129-30; B. 100-2; S. C. 
63-66. Before you can control your Serpentine change of 

edge into a perfect eight (Fig. 
223), your Figure will probably 
travel (Fig. 350) because one 
change is stronger than the other; 
but when you have acquired per- 
fect control, you may be able to 
i( ( \ ) equal or outdo Herr Max Kautz's 

record of 720 eights on one foot 
without stopping!* Cf. pp. 91-3- 

"My legs can keep no pace with 
3 ^ my desires." — M. N. D., 3, 4, 445. 

*W. H. Cheesman, who, according to Mr. Cook, learned 
the one foot eight of James Sands in 1862, (cf. p. 21), skated 
the figure with peculiar ease and grace, and on one occasion 


T Swing the unempl., not kick it as in Figs. 351-2. 

In the Continental style, the skaters position would be 
more like Fig. 353^, hands, perhaps, not quite so high. 

At the moment of 
catching power, 
the empl. is strong- 
ly bent and the 
unempl. is swung 
gently away from 
the empl., the 
skater then being ^~~* 

ous Eight with 

"He does it 
with a better 
grace, but I do 
it more natural." 
— T. N., 2, 3, 89. 

351— Bell-Loop Star.^See Fig. 70. 

353 ^- Photographs of skaters doing continuous eights 
in good form not being at present available, description 

and sketches of Salchow's skating 

by a Continental 

expert* are inserted. 

Cf. p. 147. 

"Begin an ib 

eight with the un- 
empl. in front, toe 

turned out and 

down (Cf. Fig. 353, 

a.) At x (Fig. 354, 

353£ — The Swing of the 353a — Catching Power liob 
unempl., in liob change with a swing 

a), swing the unempl. to the back. Just before reach- 
ing the center, give a strong pull with the empl.; throw 
the unempl. away from the body with 

made 90 consecutive eights without stopping. Theodore H. 
Rodgers even exceeded this number. He accomplished 133 
consecutive eights on one leg, and immediately after, 95 con- 
secutive eights on the other leg — which had had a bullet shot 
through it during the Civil War. And these feats were accom- 
plished nearly forty years ago! 

*"It is difficult for even an artist, which I am not, to draw 
skaters in action, but these rough sketches will perhaps indi- 
cate what I wish to convey." Ample photographic illustration 
may now be found in Part IF and in the Primer. 


a free swing without jerk to i; (Fig. 354 b) then bring 
it slightly to the front at 2. At y, it is again swung 
behind. For all eights, either plain or continuous, the 
swinging of the unempl. should take place at x and y. 
An easy bending or sinking of the empl. takes place at the 
change, which gives the impression of soft- 
ness and absence of effort. The un- 
empl. in all turns and loops should 
describe the same figure in the air 
that the empl. is describing on the 
ice. Always look at the center" 

The chief difficulty is with the 
iob change. At the moment of 
catching power, the empl. is strong- 
ly bent; the push off is vigorous, 

354 a 354 6 

and the compensating swing of the unempl. in front to 
preserve the balance leaves it in position to be swung 
around, knee and toes out, so as to help the rotation of the 
shoulders in shortening the ob curve. This extra swing 
and rotation of the thigh and knee are essential to the 
insertion of turns, loops, and cross-cuts in the circum- 
ference (Figs. 60-65). See p. 195. 
Changes of edge after loops in 
forward loop-eights, and outside 
loops after changes of edge in the 
back loop-eights, are extremely 
difficult. The execution of 
multiple loops in a continuous 
eight or star (Fig. 357, No. 
42), is facilitated if, of, you 
"wind" the unempl. in front of the empl. by rotating 
inwards the thigh and knee, and turning the toes in and 
down; if, if you "unwind" the unempl. thigh, knee, and 
foot, by rotating outward, ob multiple loops may be facil- 
itated by carrying the unempl. behind the empl., bending 
the knee and turning the toes down and out. In ib 
multiple loops, look far over the empl. shoulder, "wind" 
the unempl. round in front of the empl., but rotate the 
thigh and knee out, and point the toes down and out. 
Cf. Grenander's Skating, M-W. 258-9*. Similar control 

*"When I speak of the rotation of the thigh outwards or 
inwards," writes Dr Monier-Williams, Oct 4, 1900, "I mean 
to denote the purely anatomical rotation of the bone at the 
hip joint; and similarly the turning of the foot at the ankle 




of the unempl. must be attained in order to achieve 
Louis Rubenstein's difficult eights (Figs. 355-6). 

What this mastery of balance can accomplish in continu- 
ous one-foot skating, may be seen in the following figures 
by American and Continental experts. Most of them 
have been performed by Austrian and Swedish contest- 
ants in recent European competitions, the conditions of 
which permit concentration of practice on a few special- 
ties for the free-skating part of the program. Many of 
them, like Jackson Haines' spin, took years of practice to 
acquire; few of them can be skated so small and regular 
as the diagrams might suggest; and for any one skater to 
perform all of them, would require more time for practice 
than he could command. If not published here for the 
first time (like Nos. 59-64, etc.), they are taken from 
foreign skating books and accounts of competitions in 
foreign sporting periodicals, like the London Field, or the 
Wiener Allgemeinen Sportzeitung, as follows (See p. 222) : 

Austrian — (Spuren auf dem Eise) Vienna, Nos. 1, 7, 
n, 21, 35, 36, 38, 41, 54-6; by Max Kautz, 90, 93; 
by G. Hugel (German and Austrian champion, 1894; 
world's champion, 1899-1900), 3-6, 19, 20, 22, 26-31, 
45-8, 72-87; by George Zachariades (German and Aus- 
trian champion, 1893) 23, 56; by Ed. Engelmann (cham- 
pion of Europe, 1894) 53, 62; by Robt. Holletschek 
(Kunstfertigkeit im Eislaufen) Troppau, 13, 14, 17, 18, 
32-4, 37, 40, 43, 44, 49-52, 58. 

Bohemian, — Anton Schmeykal, Prag. 25. 

Swedish, — by Nils Posse, champion 1884, (Figurakning 
a Skridskor) Stockholm, 7, 9, 16, 33, 39, 65-69, 86-7; 
by Ivar Hult, 8, 15; by John Catani, 57. 

Russian, — Louis Walther, Moskow, 10, 12. 

English, — Edgar Syers, London, 64. 

American, — Herbert S. Evans, Boston, 59~6i; L. A. 
Servatius, N. Y., 63. 

Numbers 88, 89, 91, 92 are skating problems from 
Spur en auf dem Eise; 94, 95, problems from decorations 
on memorial gravestones at Mycenae, over 3,000 years 
old! For the latest special figures see pp. 133-34, 222-23. 

Fig 357, pp. 1 18-122 "These are stars indeed; 
and sometimes falling ones." H. VIII., 4» *» 54- 
joint. In the rof or rib loop, the body as a whole rotates 
in both cases in the same general direction, i, e., in a clock- 
wise direction. Grenander in both cases brings the unempl. 
foot over in front of the empl.; but in the former case he 
rotates his unempl. thigh inwards and turns the toe (foot) 
inwards, % e. towards the middle line of his own body; in the 
latter case, outwards or away from the middle line. Why he 
finds this attitude the best for his purpose I am unable to say, 
and so is he; but he is certainly the finest performer 01 loops 
I ever saw." He never saw Vinson. See pp. 145, 183 ff. 
























28 31* 





















67 68 69 70 71 

72 73 74 75 


76 77 78 79 

80 81 82 33 




84 85 86 87 






(See pp. 132, 222.) 


THE "NEW" SKATING (See top p. 191, pp. 161-2.) 
When the New York Skating Club was founded in 

1863, the energies of its members were devoted to the 
invention and practice of one-foot continuous figures, — 
partly owing to the small skating surfaces, partly to the 
national temperament, but largely to the sharp-rocked, 
self-fastening club skate, which began its popular career 
at that time. Since American skating has been con- 
trolled by New York skaters ever since, this sharp- 
rocked, three-stanchion skate and this small curved, 
kicked, continuous skating have been the only skate and 
the only style known to most American skaters. Cf. p. 31. 

But there was at least one New York skater who had 
less interest in one-foot acrobatic skating than in grace- 
ful combinations of large curves and rhythmic dance 
steps in harmonious field figures skated to music. He 
ground his skate sharp on the ends for executing turns 
quickly, and flat in the middle for gliding on big long 
curves in beautiful plastic poses; and he secured light- 
ness and ease by screwing his skate to special boots, on 
two supports only — one at the heel and one under the 
ball of the foot, where the thrust comes. Neither his 
skate nor his style, however, was popular at the New 
York Club. Accordingly, he took both to Europe in 

1864. He never returned. Since Jackson Haines left 
before rocking-turns were invented and died five years 
before a bracket was ever skated, or at least described, 
he obviously could not have been much of a performer 
of modern American "stunts." Europeans, however, 
were no skaters at all; but they were fond of music and 
dancing, and Jackson Haines's style took them by storm. 
It rapidly spread all over Europe; and, enriched by new 
figures of English and American invention, it became, 
variously modified, the standard of Europe by 1891, when 
the International Skating Union was formed. In 1900 
the I. S. U. program was adopted by the British N. S. A., 
and in 19 10 by the I. S. U. of America; so that, at last, 
the American style, rejected in the 6o's, has become the 
standard of the skating world, under the name of the 
International Style, and the Jackson Haines skate is 
now available in an up-to-date model of superior Barney 
& Berry quality. See pp. 140, 204; Primer , p. 10. 

Since Salchow has been champion of the world or of 
Europe (sometimes both) every year since 1898, his style 
of skating the turns has naturally been more popular than 
Fuchs's (Fuchs was the world champion in 1906). That, 
however, does not prove Salchow to have been always 
right. See pp. 174, 191. Fuchs's exposition on the fol- 
lowing pages is still the most systematic, and as service- 
able as ever. See p. 163. 



The American Style of Figure Skating as 
developed in Europe and systematized by 
Continental Skaters. The requirements of 
the International Skating Union, and practical 
hints for adaptation to American Conditions. 

THE International Style is the name given to the 
Continental theory and practice of figure skat- 
ing, now officially recognized in England, too, 
and therefore truly international; for it is the Ameri- 
can style, carried to Europe by Jackson Haines just 
fifty years ago, developed in various directions chiefly 
by the Swedish, the Russian, and the Austrian schools. 
The extreme characteristics of these schools have been 
so leveled by the contact of different national represen- 
tatives at the competitions held annually by the Inter- 
national Skating Union since 1891, that there is now 
practical uniformity among the best European skaters. 
For the first time in the history of skating, therefore, it 
is now possible to formulate in brief intelligible com- 
pass a complete system of Figure Skating in a style 
suited to the American taste and temperament, and 
adapted to American conditions. Not that we haven't 
a style of our own; but it is so individual, so independ- 
ent of anything approaching a definable standard or 
system, that it is difficult not only for competitors to 
know how to satisfy local judges, but also for less am- 
bitious lovers of the art to know how to begin system- 
atic practice that will produce cumulative results, 
economically progressive from figure to figure or from 
season to season. Since L. Rubenstein went to Europe, 
before the formation of the I. S. U., no American skater 
(except Irving Brokaw, 1908) has qualified for a European 
competition; and the United States is the only great 
skating country not now a member of the Union. In 
default of any official encouragement to the "latent 
talent" in this country, the following information of 
what foreigners have been doing with our style in this 
interval is offered, first in the general form of the official 
requirements of the I. S. U. (selected); then in fuller 
detail, with explanatory comments based on personal 
observation, on practical hints by Herr George Helfrich of 
the St. Petersburg Skating Association and the Berlin 
Skating Club, and on conversation and correspondence 
with expert skaters and judges, including Salchow and 
Fuchs, the best skaters (1904) in the International Style. 

1 25 



A. — General 

§ 60. The figure skating is divided into (a) the skat- 
ing of prescribed exercises (compulsory figures) and (b) 
the skating of optional figures for a specified length of 
time (free skating). The adjudication of the prizes fol- 
lows from the whole number of marks attained in both 
divisions. The Association holding the competition 
may give a separate additional prize for achievement in 
either division. (Pair and Group Skating added, June, 

B. — Compulsory Figures 

§ 64. The compulsory figures are to be selected from 
the diagrams appended (p. 127) and to be at least six in 
number. For the World and European Championships, 
the following elements — Serpentine line, Three, Double 
Three, Loop, Rocker, Counter, Bracket — must be in- 
cluded in one at least of the figures selected. Apart 
from this, the choice of compulsory figures is left to the 
fancy of the Association holding the competition. 

§ 66. Every compulsory figure can be begun only 
"from rest," that is, by a single stroke off the other 
foot (unemployed foot); the beginning must be made at 
the crossing-point of the eight. The change from one 
foot to the other must be made without pause by putting 
down the hitherto unemployed, now employed, foot, 
and a simple stroke with the lately employed, now un- 
employed, foot. Every figure must be repeated three 
times, both on the right and left foot; the repetition 
follows without pause, as above. (See Figs. 361-4, p. 135.) 

§ 67. The success of every compulsory figure is 
marked with the numbers o, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6; of which o = 
"not skated," 2 = "pass," 4 = "good," 6 = "faultless;" 
I, 3, and 5* are intermediate. In assigning a mark, there 
ranks, in the first place, correct tracing on the ice; in 
the second, carriage and movement; in the third, size 
of the figure; in the fourth, approximately accurate 
covering of the traces in the triple repetition. These 
four points of view count as of descending importance 
in the foregoing order. 

§ 68. As rules for correct tracing are to be re- 
garded: — 

Maintenance of the long and transverse axes in the 
triple repetition (as the long axis of the eight, is to be 
conceived a line that passes longitudinally through 



The numerals on the left are the official numbers; on 
the right, the factor of value according to the difficulty 
of the figure. The letters indicate the first curve only 
on each foot; the other curves and the turns may 
readily be inferred from the diagrams. (Revision of 1909.) 

CIRCLES (Eights) 

1 ROF, LOF = I 

2 RIF, LIF =1 

3 ROB, LOB = I 

4 RIB, LIB =2 

See note at bottom of next 


5<2 ROIF, LIOF =% 
b LOIF, RIOF =1 

6a ROIB, LIOB =2 
b LOIB, RIOB =2 


7 ROF, LOF = 1 

8a ROF, LIB =2 

b LOF, RIB =2 

ga RIF, LOB =1 

b LIF, ROB =1 


10 ROF, LOF =1 

11 RIF, LIF =1 

12 ROB, LOB =1 

13 RIB, LIB =2 


14 ROF, LOF =2 

15 RIF, LIF =2 

16 ROB ; LOB =2 

17 RIB, LIB =2 


l8# ROF, LIB =3 
b LOF, RIB =3 

I9<3 RIF, LOB =3 
b LIF, ROB =3 



20a ROF, LOB =4 
b LOF, ROB =4 

21/2 RIF, LIB =4 
b LIF, RIB =4 

22a ROF*LOB =3 
b LOF, ROB =3 

23a RIF, LIB =3 
b LIF, RIB =3 



24a ROIF, LIOF =2 
b LOIF, RIOF = 2 

25# ROIB, LIOB =3 
b LOIB, RIOB =3 


26a ROIF, LOIB =2 
£ LOIF, ROIB =2 

27^ RIOF, LIOB =3 
b LIOF, RIOB =3 


28a ROIF, LIOF = 1 
b LOIF, RIOF =1 

29^ ROIB, LIOB =3 
b LOIB, RIOB =3 

30tf ROIF, LIOF =2 
b LOIF, RIOF =2 

jltf ROIB, LIOB =3 
b LOIB, RIOB =3 


320 ROIF, LOIB =3 
b LOIF, ROIB =3 

33# RIOF, LIOB =3 
b LIOF, RIOB =3 


2,6a ROF, LIF =3 
& LOF, RIF =3 

37# ROB, LIB =4 
£ LOB, RIB =4 


4.0a ROF, LIF =4 
& LOF, RIF =4 

410 ROB, LIB =5 
& LOB, RIB =5 

340 ROF, LIF =3 
b LOF, RIF =3 

350 ROB, LIB =3 
b LOB, RIB =3 


380 ROF, LIF =4 

b LOF, RIF =4 

390 ROB, LIB =5 

b LOB, RIB =5 

Note — For the old, out- 
grown shapes, have been sub- 
stituted the above accurate 
diagrams of the figures as now 
skated by the best experts. 
For uniformity, they are all 
begun rof, and the push-offs 
fit the sequence of curves from 
such a start. Begun rif, the 
skating-foot on the last curve 
would end slightly in the other 
direction for the push-off; but 
this variation, and the similar 
variation in the figures when 
skated backward, can not be 
expressed in one diagram for 


the middle of the eight, dividing it right and left into 
two equal halves; the transverse axis passes at right 
angles to the long axis through the middle of the eight.) 

Approximately equal size of the first and second 
halves of the eight, divided by the transverse axis. 

Symmetrical grouping of the individual parts of the 
figure about the axis. 

Curves without sub-curves, skated out to the end; 
that is, returning nearly to the starting point. 

Threes with the turns lying in the long axis, second 
curve approximately of the same size as the first. 

Double Threes with the central curve cutting the long 
axis at right angles, the three curves of nearly equal size. 

Loops longer than broad, without sharp angle, with 
their long axis lying in the long axis of the eight, second 
curve approximately of the same size as the first. 

Changes of edge with an easy transition, the change 
falling in the (long) axis; when skated out to a full 
eight, the change of edge coming near the starting 
point of the first curve, second curve returning to the 
same point, approximately of the same size as the first. 

Rockers and Counters without change of edge, the turn 
near the axis ; Brackets, without change of edge before 
and after the turn, turn on the axis, first and second 
curves approximately of equal size. 

§ 69. As rules of correct carriage and movement in 

skating the compulsory figures (within which rules the 
individuality of the skater receives fair play and all pos- 
sible consideration on the part of the judges) are to be 
regarded (See p. 139, British N. A. S. A., Dec, 191 2): — 

Upright carriage, not bent at the hips, but without 
being stiff. Strong bending of knee or body to be only 
momentary; head upright. Unemployed foot to be 
held only a little way from the ice, not dragging be- 
hind; toe turned downward and outward, knee slightly 
bent, generally held behind the employed foot; other- 
wise swinging freely and assisting the movement, but 
without being held far away. Arms to hang down, easily; 
like the unemployed foot, they can be used to assist 
by their movement, but without raising elbow or hand 
far away from the body; hands, when possible, never 
above the waist. Fingers neither spread nor clinched. 
In general, everything violent, angular, or stiff to be 
avoided in the movement; no effort is to be strongly 
expressed, but the impression is to be given that the 
figures are executed without effort. 

(Of course, there is no precise standard of size. 
Other things being equal, the skater who skates largest 


wins. The size of the figure on the ice, however, should 
be adapted to the size and build of the skater; the at- 
tempt to skate over-large is to be discouraged, .for it is 
sure to produce instability, diminution of pace and 
swing, and ungraceful carriage. Salchow, who skates 
the largest figures, makes, for example, a bracket eight 
(No. 32) with the turns sixteen yards apart. In a Cana- 
dian or a New York competition they would be only 
two or three yards apart, but perhaps more accurately 
placed. The Continental Skater, however, is warned 
not to aim at accurate placing and symmetry to the 
neglect of graceful carriage and easy movement. The 
last Congress of the I. S. U. at Budapest, June, 1903, 
repeating this warning also in regard to the striving 
for over-large figures, recommended both skaters and 
judges to lay weight first upon correct execution accord- 
ing to 64; second, upon carriage and movement accord- 
ing to 65; and not until third upon size.) 

359 — Fuchs, ob Spread Eagle (Free Skating) 

C. — Free Skating 

§ 67. The free skating is marked (a) for the contents 
of the program performed (difficulty and variety); (b) 
for the manner of performance (harmonious compo- 
sition, sureness, carriage and movement, etc.); in each 
case with the numbers o to 6 with the same significance 
as in the compulsory figures. See pp. 208-10. 


D. — Determination of the Result 
§ 68. On each marking-card, in every compulsory- 
figure, the mark given is multiplied by the factor of 
value which belongs to the figure in question in propor- 
tion to its difficulty, and is to be taken from the ap- 
pended diagrams of compulsory figures. The total sum 
of these products on each marking-card for each skater 
individually gives the number of points for compulsory 
figures which he has earned with the individual judge. 

The marks given for free figures under (a) and (b) are 
added, and the sum multiplied by the factor announced 
in the advertisement; the product is the number of 
points for free figures. This factor must be arranged so 
that the highest possible points for free figures amount 
to about, but not more than two-thirds of the highest 
possible for compulsory figures. 

The number of points for free figures plus the num- 
ber of points for compulsory figures gives for each 
skater individually the total number of points which he 
has earned from the individual judge. Cf. p. 38. 


The free skating program must be composed of at- 
tractive, graceful figures, capable of fluent amalgama- 
tion into a harmonious coherent unit. Difficulty is not 
so essential as the avoidance of all figures that interrupt 
the continuous swing, such as beaks, scissors, crosses, 
and stars. Much more suitable are spirals, turns and 
strokes, jumps, wing-eights, dance-steps, combinations 
of spectacles and of the rocking turns, on right foot and 
on left, joined together by threes and changes of edge 
into a harmonious rhythmic performance to the accom- 
paniment of music. In order to give the execution 
some eclat, one is recommended to begin with a vigorous 
spiral or difficult step and end with a rocker jump, 
spread-eagle, or Jackson Haines spin. Only those 
figures should be attempted which can be skated to 
perfection; an easy program skated with abandon, with 
sure mastery of balance, swing, pace, and edge, works 
better with the judges than a difficult program indiffer- 
ently executed. Above all, the program should provide 
for a performance characteristic, individual, original, 
and of almost liquid continuity. Salchow's free-skating 
program at Davos, January 18, 1903, began with a rof 
rocker jump to rob; then a jump from lob to rif; the 
Engelmann star; if three, back pirouette, ob three 
eight (Figs. 358, 6, 360); once back and jump, a complete 
revolution in the air; a march, rof rocker and lob 
three and riob counter, rocker, and repeat; ib rocker, 


change, spread-eagle; another rocker march; spread- 
eagle jump, complete revolution; rocker counter con- 
tinuous spectacles, with rhythmic swing of free foot to 
music; another march, rof rocker change ib loop change 
ob counter of three and lib three and repeat; more 
intricate march steps that I could not identify from 
the "side lines," the program ending with the Jackson 
Haines spin — a rof flat-foot spin with figure 4 bend 
(Cf. Primer, p. 64) clear down to the ice, straightening 
up again while revolving at a rapid pace, and finishing 
with a pirouette on the toe. See p. 39. 

Ui : K*#l ; -- Xr.&y.y'i, V&/:4a-j ; ^M, :.■'..:..■>■ < <i ^hiv^'W^a '. - : ' ; _ ; ;i •'pwa^a^s*'^.,' 

360— Salchow, teaching Mrs. Syers his (Free Skating) 
back pirouette Eight, p. 133, No. 6. (Mr. Syers, 



Those difficult original figures that make beautiful 
prints on the ice but do not lend themselves to this 
artistic combination in unbroken rhythmic transition, 
are provided for nowadays in a third division of the 
program — the special figures. Difficulty here plays the 
chief role, and good form a secondary one. In contrast 
with the free skating, here a perfectly correct print on 
the ice, with clear, faultless edges, is the main thing. 
Diagrams, with verbal description of the special figures 
offered by a contestant, must be submitted beforehand 
for the use of the judges. Specimens of these figures 
may be found on pp. 1 18-122. 


Fig 358 



Some new ones of recent invention pp. 133-4, Fig. 
358, Nos. 1, 3-5, 11-13, 16, 17, by Fuchs, Munich Skating 
Club, March, 1903; No. 6, Salchow's back pirouette 
eight, Fig. 360; 8-10, by Niedermeyer, Munich; 2, by 
Clifford E. Dunn, New York; 7, 14, 15, 18-23, by Dr. 
Winzer, first skated at Davos, Jan.-Feb., 1903 . Cf. p. 222. 


The free-skating and the special figures thus display 
the real capacity, talent, and individuality of the skater. 

If the compulsory 
speak, the grammar 
free skating is like 
literary expression 
character and power 
The importance of 
therefore at once ap- 
ical excellence is im- 
grammatical accu- 
begin s with the 
figures. The Inter- 
tal figures, it will be 
ours in at least two 

figures are, so to 
of figure skating, the 
the rhetorical or 
of the performer's 
in true artistic form, 
the school figures is 
parent: as rhetor- 
possible wit hout 
racy, so good skating 
mastery of the school 
national fundamen- 
noticed, differ from 
^. particulars: they are 

alternate-foot figures, 363-Free foot never continuous; 
and they must be be- Sj^^thro S un from rest > not 

the circle. 

362 — rib Stroke. 

from previously es- 
tablished pace (Fig. 
361). Elementary 
ed only in the pre- 
systematic practice 
the figures in the 
This restriction 
jars upon the Amer- 
gram was originally 

361 — RIB 

start from 

rest The 

free foot is 


across the 



364-Transition Stroke, 


practice is recommend- 
scribed eight form; and 
only in the order of 
official program, 
in number and order 
ican Skater. His pro- 
arranged (1868) "under compre- 


hensive, fundamental heads, designed to include every- 
thing appertaining to the art." And its twenty-five 
numbers did provide for the skating of all that was then 
known under those comprehensive heads; for it was 
understood that "whenever practicable, all movements 
are to be executed both forward and backward, on right 
foot and on left, in field and to place." If the mere 
wording of the program had been re-edited to keep 
pace with the growth of the art, it might still have ful- 
filled the purpose of its compilers in their original spirit; 

365 — Dr. Winzer in the exceedingly hard rocker step, 
rif to lob, crossing over behind. 

but the "thing of shreds and patches" left by the revision 
of 1902 is now neither one thing nor the other. Instead 
of making the program all-inclusive, as before, and 
then shortening it for competition purposes by provid- 
ing for a selection, the revisers reduced it both in quantity 
and in quality, and robbed it of all virtue as a developer 
of skating, by cutting out the free-skating and special 
figures! (Compare the present schedule (1902), p. 159, 
with the revision of 1891, Hdbk., p. 23.) 

The International School Program does not aim to 
be all-inclusive, — only to be fundamental. Even if it 
were the former, the principle of selecting a few figures 


from it long beforehand might be open to the criticism 
that neglect of practice of the figures not selected is 
thereby encouraged, and all-round proficiency dis- 
couraged. But the original American principle of pro- 
viding opportunity for each contestant's showing all he 
knows under successive heads of a schedule covering 
the whole of the art, has often compelled unnecessarily 
wearisome practice, and has at last broken down as a 
practical test under the exigencies of time and strength, 
and the patience of all concerned. Perhaps drawing 
some numbers by lot on the day of the competition 
might insure practice of the whole program, and yet 
provide a satisfactory test, skatable under all ordinary 
conditions. Some compromise is obviously necessary, 

366 — Dr. Winzer, lif to rof Counter (page 134, No. 22). 

and the I. S. U. School Program suggests a practical 
solution. The figures are fundamental, though there 
are others, perhaps, that might with equal propriety be 
included. For example: the steps from a curve on one 
foot to a curve on the other, without the print of a turn 
but with a half-turn of the body as in a three, a bracket, 
a rocker, or a counter, the unemployed foot being 
crossed over in front or behind (cf. Hdbk, pp. 52-61), are 
quite as fundamental, though perhaps not as graceful, 


as the simple turns on one foot; and even more effective 
training of the body to suppleness and pliability, as is 
shown by the vigorous and nimble skating of such a 
versatile performer as Dr. Winzer, "The Ice King of 
Dresden" (Figs. 365, 366). He maintains that the "Spec- 
tacles," "Counter Spectacles," and "Spread-Eagle" 
have as much right to be compulsory figures as Nos. 
34-41 of the Program, "which are combinations no more 
fundamental than a thousand others" (!). In spite of 
some efforts to increase the list (notably by the addition 
of combinations of the turns and loops connected by 
rockers and counters instead of by changes of edge), the 
present program enjoys the prestige of widely extended 
official approbation, tried by over a dozen years' experi- 
ence; and furthermore, the figures are arranged in a 
natural sequence of difficulty, which facilitates the 
selection of graded tests, as follows: 

1. For Novices: six figures from 1 to 11. 

2. For Juniors: six to eight figures from 1 to 30&. 

3. For Seniors: eight to ten figures from 8 to 4.1b. 

4. European Championship ) % ten to fourteen fig- 

5. World's Championship (' ures from 12 to 41b. 
Free skating in 1 and 2, three minutes; in 3, 4, and 5, 

five minutes (i. e., in 1902-3). 

In 1902 the Special Test of the N. S. A. of Great 
Britain was given up, and three Official Tests in the Inter- 
national Style were instituted, as follows (Revision of 
December, 1912): — 

Third Class (20 out of maximum of 36 marks) 
Nos. 1, 2, 3, $a, $b and 7 (p. 127). 

Second Class (130 out of 234 marks) 
Nos. 4, 6a, 6b, 8a, 8b, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18a, 18b, 24a, 
24b, 26a, 26b, 27a, 27b. 

The candidate will* be required to skate a free program 
of three minutes' duration. 
This will be marked — 

{a) For the content* of the program (difficulty and 

variety) up to a maximum of 6 marks. 
(b) For the manner of performance up to a maxi- 
mum of 6 marks. 
In order to pass, a candidate must obtain 7 marks for 
(a) and (b) together. 

The marks for Compulsory figures and for Free Skat- 
ing must be obtained from each Judge. Judges may 
use half-marks and quarter-marks. 

First Class (203 out of 360 marks) 
Rockers, 20a, b, 21a, b; Counters, 22a, b, 23a, b; 
Three - Change - Three, 35a, b; Loop - Change - Loop, 
38a, b, 39a, b; Bracket-Change-Bracket, 400, 4.0b. 

The candidate will be required to skate a program, of 
four minutes' duration, marked as above. 


The tests must be skated in good form, directions for 
which are: — ■ 

Carriage upright but not stiff; the body not bent for- 
wards or sideways at the waist; all raising or lowering of 
the body being effected by bending the knee of the trac- 
ing leg with upright back; the body and limbs generally 
held sideways to the direction of progress. The head 
always upright. Tracing-leg flexible with bent knee. The 
eyes looking downwards as little as possible. The knee 
and toe of the free leg turned outwards as far as possible, 
the toe always downwards; the knee only slightly bent. 
The free leg swinging freely from the hip and assisting the 
movement. The arms held easily, and assisting the 
movement; the hands neither spread nor clenched. All 
action of the body and limbs must be easy and swinging, 
with the direct object of assisting the movement of the 
moment; violent or stiff motions are to be avoided; the 
figure should seem to be executed without difficulty. 

The figures must be begun from rest, that is, by a 
single stroke with the other foot; and at the intersecting 
point of two circles. Every figure must be repeated three 
times consecutively. No impetus may be taken from 
the ice by the foot which is about to become the tracing 
foot, and every stroke should be taken from the edge of 
the blade, not from the point. 

But quite aside from all considerations of competitions 
or tests, the simple principles underlying the consistent, 
systematic execution of these figures are especially sig- 
nificant and instructive to American lovers of the art 
of skating as a graceful accomplishment and health- 
giving recreation. The following extracts from the 
authoritative exposition by Gilbert Fuchs (originally 
contributed to Deutscher JVintersport, Mar.-Apr., 1902) 
will, it is believed, give the completest and clearest 
statement of the essentials that has yet appeared in 
English. The notes and illustrations are the trans- 
lator's. In the photographs, observe especially the 
downward-pointing unemployed foot (Fig. 374), the bent 
skating leg (Fig. 368), and the vigorous rotary action of 
hip and back muscles (Fig. 360)* Just as the expert 
tobogganer on the Cresta ice-run pulls himself forward 
on his sliding seat in order to gain pace in the straights, 
so the Continental Skater, in order to open out his 
curves, bends the skating leg, throws his weight for- 
ward, and uses the balance leg almost as a rudder. The 
high heel of his skate throws the traveling area of the 
blade almost under the ball of the foot; and to facilitate 
still further the execution of large, bold curves, the blade 
at this point is sometimes ground almost fiat, the com- 
posite rock then gradually sharpening toward the heel 


and toe where the turns are made. The blade is usually- 
thicker at the toe than at the heel, which projects farther 
behind than in most American skates. Messrs. Barney 
& Berry are now prepared to supply such a skate from 
stock; and for club and rink use, experts will find their 
two stanchion "Continental" with screw-on mount 
lightest and best for fine artistic work in the International 
style. The new heel-button round-toed "International" 
is serviceable to those who do not care for a special boot. 
See Primer, pp. 10-12. 

The New B. & B. Continental Skate 


The International School (according to Fuchs) is 
based upon a series of figures varying from the easier 
to the harder, and these figures in turn are combina- 
tions of fundamental elements. These elements are the 
circles (eights) and the turns. See p. 174. 

Every element, every figure, is performed with equal 
cooperation of skating leg, free leg, and body. This 
equalization alone ensures harmonious movement, in 
general and in particular, secures the greatest profit 
from the various aids, promotes the correct distribution 
of pace and swing, and makes the figure appear easy 
and symmetrical. Both the figure and the print on the 
ice, if the above is observed, will of themselves be cor- 
rect. Accordingly I do not agree with the Official Pro- 
gram (§65), when it says: "Arms hanging down with- 
out swinging can be used like the free foot to assist with 
their movements;" I insist "they must be so used." 
With the free foot, we shall soon see how the assistance 
is to be given; but the use of the arms is left to the in- 
dividuality of the skater. It says further in this para- 
graph (§65) that the free foot ought to be "raised only 
a little from the ice," must be "carried generally be- 
hind the skating foot," and should be "slightly bent at 
the knee." This is partly wrong, and partly trespass- 
ing upon the free individuality of the skater. Just so 
when it says of the arms, "without lifting the elbows 
or hands far from the body" — that is nothing but an 
infringement and restriction on individuality. On the 
other hand, I quite agree with the program when it 
says that "everything stiff or hitchy in the movement 
is to be avoided, and the impression is to be given that 
the figure is performed without effort;" and I might 


add, " wherever possible no strongly marked assisting 
movements." Much more to my liking is what George 
Helfrich says in his recent Practical Hints for Fancy 
Skaters: "One should always strive to skate natu- 
rally and not to take a prescribed attitude" — that's the 
whole thing in a nutshell. Helfrich further says, "A 
pliant attitude suited to the figure is recommended," — 
quite right, provided it is not unmanly and effeminate. 


Now, then, to the circles (eights). As regards the 
position of the swinging foot these may be skated in 
three ways: with the free foot in front, behind, and 
with shifting position. Experience with the more diffi- 
cult exercises proves that the last, which is also the 
natural position, is the correct one; for by the simple 
thrust with which we establish any pace on the forward 
edges, the free foot drops back and then swings for- 
ward. On the backward edges the free foot at first 
swings forward and then falls behind the skating foot. 
This is so in the simple circle (eight) and, according to 
our principle, must always occur when an independent 
circle occurs, or a curve after a turn. 

Now the question naturally arises, why the change 
in the position of the free foot has to take place. In 
this connection, we must bear in mind that it is the 
work of the swinging foot that insures the uniformity 
of the line of curvature, rightly distributes the swing 
and pace, and thus brings the curve round to the start- 
ing point. Both halves of the curve, then, must have 
the same share in the cooperation of the swinging foot; 
theoretically, therefore, the change in the position of 
the free foot must take place in the middle of the curve. 
Practically, too, this is quite right; only we may note 
that in forward edges the swinging foot shifts a little 
after the middle, and in backward edges a little before 
the middle, of the curve; but this is not entirely neces- 
sary.* See Primer, pp. 4, 26 ff. 

So far, we have fixed the time and the place of the 
change of the swinging foot; we have now to explain 
the kind of motion that takes place. At the push-off the 
free foot is swung backward or forward from the hip 
(joint). In the subsequent movements we have a dis- 
tinction to mark between the o and 1 curves. What is 
specified for if applies similarly (but inversely) to the IB. 

*In Salchow's skating, the free foot swings by just half way 
through the inside circles; but about three quarters through the 
of, and about one quarter through the ob, circle. See pp. 175-7. 


368 — rif 


up, as free foot 

In the if, after the thrust (Fig. 367), the balance foot 
is carried fairly wide behind and even across the plane 
of progression; then gradually swung nearer to the 
skating foot until half the curve is done, then, as close 
as possible, continuously — without kick 
— drawn by it: at the same time, the 
skating leg, which has been bent at the 
knee (Fig. 368), slowly straightens up, as 
the free foot gradually swings forward 

and again crosses over 

the plane of progression 

(Fig. 369). In this way the 

skating is steady, elastic, 

and with plenty of go in 

it. Quite similar should 

be the skating of such a 

curve in every combina- 

Hon, so far as the curve 8 # ng8 by , half- 

%s an independent curve way through 

and a whole one. Every *he circle 

other movement of the swinging foot, 

such as straying, jerky, or repeated for- 

369 — rif, z /i 

circle, free 

foot crossed 


ward and 
of it, etc., be- 
tray an un- 
which either 
may be at- 
tributed to 
faulty car- 
riage of the 
body or is 

caused by imperfect or actually wrong performance 
of a previous turn. Here, then, we have an excellent 
criterion by which to judge a turn. 

On the outside edges the close approximation of the 
balance foot to the skating foot is of less importance, 
though a similar quiet management of it is obviously 

If the carriage of the body and of the free foot is 
correct, then the print on the ice will be correct too; 
i. <?., we shall describe a circle all of which is uniformly 
rounded: no part of the curve is flat or stretched; 


-Transition step 367 — rif thrust. 



hollows and protuberances do not occur. These sub 
curves are unmistakable signs that, although the skater 
may have made quite the right print on the ice in a pre- 
vious turn, he had not quite mastered it, and the direc- 
tion of his edge and momentum were consequently not 
in the same plane. This often occurs, as I have fre- 
quently had occasion to observe; e. g., after ib loops, 
or after rockers and counters. Again, these sub-curves 
arise from a skater's trying to skate large — great size, 
nowadays, seems to be trumps — in fact, beyond the 
normal compass of his power. But in order to skate a 
figure so large, the skater must have much swing; and 
with great swing, after most turns, the curve has a 
tendency to curl in more and more and become smaller. 
Now, there are special ways of preventing this. If a 
skater is not in possession of them, or makes his turns 
badly, bends are bound to occur in his curves, which, to 
be sure, do not necessarily imply a change of edge, but 
which impair the required uniformity of circular curve. 
It is a great difficulty of our modern art to skate the 
turns easily, surely, and accurately, and at the same 
time to skate correctly the curves before and after with 
uniform, unbroken pace, — a difficulty which, alas, is too 
little known or recognized. (I observed that the Conti- 
nental Skater abandons the sidewise position some 
distance before reaching the center on a back edge. In 
order to start the next circle with a full bold curve in 
the right direction, he does not keep his eye on the 
center too long — he acquires the instinct to fetl the 
right pace and direction of the transition stroke two 
yards or more before he reaches the center. G. H. B.) 


We had, you know, two fundamental elements to 
consider: the circles (eights), in four forms, and the 
turns. The turns, themselves, again, are of two dif- 
ferent kinds: turns on a curve, and turns between two 
different curves. The turns on a curve are the Three 
and the Loop. I call these turns "on a curve," because 
I look upon the curve after the turn as a natural con- 
tinuation of the curve before the turn, although with 
change of front, since it follows quite naturally, with- 
out any special effort on the part of the skater, in the 
direction of the previous curve. Contrasted with these 
turns are those which bind together two curves of dif- 
ferent kinds: they are the Serpentine, the Rocking 
Turns, and the Beak Turns, the latter not yet included 
in the school figures. 


As general characteristics of the correct perform- 
ance of these turns, I may specify the following: I. 
Accuracy in the print on the ice — they should never be 
wrenched, but be skated easily, with equal cooperation 
of skating foot, swinging foot, and body. 2. They 
should depend as little as possible on the previously 
acquired pace. 3. Finally, the less audible they are, 
the less visible the print in the ice, so much the better 
— an unmistakable sign of correct and accurate per- 
formance. An indispensable requisite is good form — 
for to skate the figures in a prescribed manner in good 
form, that is the Art of Skating. See p. 164. 


The Three, as a school figure, is skated in circles 
(eights), and is, according to my idea, a turn in circle, 
i. <?., the circle in which the three occurs is to be reck- 
oned a unit and to be treated as such when skated, and 
therefore skated with shifting position of the free foot. 
(The free foot swings by at the middle of the curve, just 
as if the turn were not there at all.) 

The three must be skated to a good finish without 
curling in; the skater must not be contented merely to 
raise the skate at the turn, he must be sure not to 
scrape, or rub, or tear the ice. The three turn is accom- 
plished by shortening the radius of the curve while 
hard on the edge and bending the 
knee as it turns, thereby giving the 
skate a jerk forward, which leaves a 
pretty point in the print. At this 
stage the edge is changed and the 
curve is continued with the knee 
straightening out. 

The turn skated this way is almost 
noiseless, since the skate runs quite 
in the plane of progression; the three 
appears in the print as a little in- 
'Sjli Lsgr^ dented point in the circumference, 
371_lsalchow More and after which the curve 
"tearing" out of continues in the same direction and 
a big rop three with the same radius, the tangents 
at the point of intersection mak- 
ing an angle of about 8o°. If the three is skated in this 
correct manner, the second curve will never be dis- 
torted, because the direction of the curve and the 
momentum of the body are in harmony. Besides, one 
gains his pace anew by such a three, but diminishes it 
by scratches and scrapes. One loses pace if the three 
curls in, because the direction of the curve and the 


plane of progression are not quite together. The skater 
is then compelled to use special means to attain the 
necessary pace, and begins to tear* out of the turn, in 
order to make the second curve as big as the first (Fig. 
371). See p. 180, and Primer, p. 35 fT. 


The Loop is a turn on a curve without change of 
front, and as a school figure is skated halfway through 
the curve so that the free foot before the loop always 
points toward the beginning of the curve, and after 
the loop toward the end of it. This is true of all loops. 

372 — Mrs. Syers coming out of a rif loop. 

A different movement of the swinging foot is made 
in outer and in inner loops for the reason that in the 
former it crosses round over the curve, in the latter the 
movement is all inside (Fig. 372). I might here observe 
that I have seen loops skated in two shapes; broader 
than long (Grenander) and longer than broad (oval). 
The latter is recognized as the correct shape. These, 
too, I have seen skated in different ways. Foldvary, on 
account of his long, flat skate, skated them in such a 
way that in the middle of the loop he made a notice- 
able pause and then with a fresh swing skated out of 
the loop. A stop, though very brief, is also apt to be 
made by Salchow in the middle of his loop, from which 

*Fuchs takes Salchow to task for this method of enlarging 
his threes; but Salchow told me he learned it from Fuchs. 


he tears out in order to make the second curve as big 
as the first, or even greater. 

If the loop is correctly skated, no suspension of the 
swing is necessary. Although in the middle of the loop, 
by virtue of the rotation, the swing appears to slow up, 
there ought to be no break in it; and although there is 
a little alteration in the pace (from the change in the 
radius of the curve) the transition ought to be hardly 
noticeable. See p. 183, and Primer, p. 40 fT. 

The loop ought to be skated as noiselessly as the 
three. This virtue is attained by keeping the swinging 
foot as far back as possible before the loop, rotating the 
body at the hips and bending the knee of the skating 
leg, in order to be able to straighten it after the middle 
of the loop, while the free foot is gradually swinging 
round forward, and the body, which has hitherto been 
bent forward, is straightening up to an erect posture. 
The movement of the swinging foot in the outer loops 
is very simple, for you have only to take pains not to 
bring it forward too soon, as it crosses moderately wide 
spread, around over the skating leg. During the loop 
you raise the free foot a little higher from the ice, and 
swing it from the hips a little farther from the skating 
leg, and after the loop slowly forward. In outer-back 
loops the movement is similar, only inverted. In the 
forward loop, the free foot, which before the loop is 
drawn close to the skating foot and after is crossed over 
it a little, during the loop describes a loop in the air and 
is then crossed over the plane of progression and swung 
in front. After the ib it is quite the same. In skating 
loops, special attention is to be given to the flexibility 
of the ankles. The size of loops varies in general from 
4 to 16 inches in length. If made larger they gradually 
lose the true characteristics of the loop. They may be 
skated smaller provided they are skated correctly. 

Combinations of loop and three, like three-loop- 
three, produce beautiful figures of great swing and 
pace; the free foot is held forward during the three out 
of consideration of the following loop, for the move- 
ment of the swinging foot in loops is quite the same, 
whether they are skated singly or in combination. 

THE SERPENTINE (Change of Edge) 

The Serpentine is a combination of two curves in 
the same direction but on different edges. This turn, 
like the others, is produced by equal cooperation of body, 
skating leg, and free leg. Before the change of edge, 
the body is thrown somewhat back and hard on the inner 
side of the curve; after the change, it is swung forward 


■- •'?«'< r 


373— RIOF Change. 

374— LIOF 

and again thrown on the inner side of the new curve. 
The skating leg is bent at the knee before the change 
in order to be straightened again after it. See p. 178. 

The correct movement of the swinging leg, which 
shows us here again how well the turn is mastered, is 
as follows: In forward curves, before the change, it 

comes in 
front of the 
skating 1 eg, 
even crosses 
over a little 
(Fig. 373); 
during the 
change, it is 
drawn quick- 
ly but with- 
out jerk pret- 
ty near the 
skating foot, 
by it, and back as far as possible, and 
finally crossed over (Fig. 374). (It is all one swing — 
there is no pause or break in the movement of the 
swinging foot, except, perhaps, that the change of edge 
accelerates its backward (or forward) pace.) The move- 
ment is similar (inverted) in backward curves. The 
whole movement has in it something of an easy rhyth- 
mic cadence; it is therefore wrong to skate the change 
of edge by main effort of the skating leg, because it 
will be the exception if you do not crunch and scrape on 
the ice;* the print will then be angular and make a 
hook. The correct print must be a soft, gradual transi- 
tion from one curve to the other, as short as possible, 
but without any short radius nooks in it. The mark on 
the ice should be as slightly visible as possible, and 
without much snow thrown up. If the serpentine is 
skated in this way, no noise on the ice will be heard, 
and the carriage of the body will be a gentle transition 
from one curve to the other, without jerks and awk- 
ward angles. The movement of the swinging foot be- 
fore, during, and after the change is the same, whether 
the preceding curve is a half circle or a whole one, 
because it belongs exclusively to the change as such. 
Every circle following the change, however, is to be 
treated as an independent circle. See Primer, p. 32 ff. 
Of the change of edge in combination, nothing fur- 
ther is to be said, except that the fault is generally to be 

*It is worse to skate changes by main effort of the swing- 
ing leg, as do most Americans and Frenchmen. See p. 178 ff. 


375 — The Fuchs Rocker. 

1. Swing 1, forward. 2. Swing 2, backward, just before 
turn. 3. Swing 3, in front, at turn, in normal position 
for back curve. 

376— The New" Rocker (Salchow). 

Free foot held in front all the time. No forced curve. 
Very large and powerful. 1. Vigorous first curve. 
2. Putting in the hook (Fig. 391*). 3. After the turn 
under the free foot, which now drops behind the curve. 

found in the preceding turn, if the change of edge fol- 
lowing it is not correctly skated. See New Skating, p. 19. 


To the rocking turns belong Rockers, Counters, and 
Brackets. These three kinds belong together in one 
group, because they are different from all other turns, 
possess common characteristics, and are executed in 
similar ways. The rocking turns may be denned as 
turns which join two curves of different direction, 
usually with change of front, by means of a false or im- 
pure serpentine. By impure or false serpentine, in con- 
trast with a pure or genuine serpentine, which by a 
change of edge joins two different curves, I mean every 
print on the ice like a serpentine, but on the same edge, 
which inevitably arises as a result of counter rotation 
of the body, but in and by itself alone connects no 
curves. Reverse or counter carriage of the body occurs 
when a skater during a curve lets the position character- 
istic of that curve gradually turn into the position 
which belongs to the curve that follows the next turn. 

I call these turns by Holletschek's name, rocking 
turns (fViegewendungen, Ruckwendungen), because they 
are executed by a kind of rocking motion of the body 
and the skating leg, during which the free leg performs 
some well defined swinging motions. I apply here also 
the same principle stated above: that all turns must be 
skated with equal cooperation of body, skating leg, and 
swinging leg; and therefore I reject all turns skated 
with a simple kick and without assistance of the swing- 
ing leg, because they do not meet the requirements of 
the false serpentine, and usually leave a scratched or 
jumped print. Rocking turns should be skated clean like 
other turns, and ought not to be crunched or scratched. 

Common characteristics of the performance of these 
turns are the following: the body by the end of the first 
curve has already been brought pretty nearly into the 
position which it is going to take in the second curve; 
the skating leg before and after the turn is bent at the 
knee and straightened somewhat at the turn; further, 
the movements of the swinging foot, — this executes 
three movements or swings, which can be counted, to a 
certain extent, rhythmically, to 1, 2, 3 time. This move- 
ment of the swinging foot always occurs, no matter 
whether the previous curve is a half-circle or a whole 
one, because this movement belongs to the turn. 

In the turns from f to b, the free foot first swings 
forward (Fig. 375 1 ), then back (Fig. 375 2 ), sharply and 
quickly as near as possible to the skating foot, and then 


it comes as quickly forward again (Fig. 375 s ), putting the 
skater into the normal attitude for an independently 
begun back curve. The last movement is necessary, for 
after these turns, too, the second curve, which is quite 
independent, must obviously be treated as a curve 
skated alone by itself. The situation is quite the same 
from b to f. 


In this figure the first curve turns into the spurious 
serpentine just before the turn, and the second curve 
starts directly from it. The execution of the turn is 
very simple. Before the turn, the free foot is swung 
forward, if it is not already in front; when about to 
make the turn, the skater draws it sharply back, during 
which movement the spurious serpentine is generated. 
The body is now almost in position for the second curve, 
and, as the skater begins to swing the free foot forward 
again near the skating foot, he makes the turn. The 
skating leg, which during the turn straightened up a 
bit, is now somewhat more bent, and the new curve be- 
gins quite normally, with the free foot in 
front. Inner and outer, the execution is 
exactly the same, and also from backward 
to forward. See p. 188 ff. 


The Rocker makes a print the very oppo- 
site of the Counter, 
for the turn comes 
directly after the 
first curve; and 
from it, beginning 

/ y^ V \\J ^^^ ■"* ^J 

380 — After 
the turn, 
free foot 
in front. 

with the 



springs the 


curve. The 

execution of the rocker is quite 

378 — kof Rocker analogous to that of the counter. Be- 
(Fuchs), body f h tu if the free foot i s not 

rocking back, . . » ,„. . 

free foot forward, in front, it is swung iorward (r ig.378;, 

when about to make the turn, the skater draws it back- 
ward sharply and quickly, as near as possible to the 
skating foot (Fig. 379); with this motion, the skating 


379— Body rocking for- 
ward , free foot behind . 

foot darts forward, catches a hard edge, shortens the 
radius, and thus makes a hook up to the point of the 
turn. The body, which in the last part of the first curve 
has already got itself well into the position for the fol- 
lowing second curve, is now, during the turn, brought 
completely into that position, and the turn is made just 
at the moment when the free foot begins to swing for- 
ward again (Fig. 380). Thus the skater is put into the 
position in which the new curve, if skated independently, 
would normally be begun, and so meets the formerly 
expressed condition that every separate circle must be 
skated as it would be by itself alone. The knee of the 
skating leg is bent before the turn, and even more 
after it. 

When the rockers were put into the school program 
along with the new turns, no one anywhere knew just 
how to begin right with them. In the Vienna Skating 
Club (z. e. y Hugel) they were stated as follows: In order 
to execute the rocker at the end of the first curve, the 
skater swung the free foot wide from the skating foot, 
thereby making a print resembling a rocker, but marked 
with a strong, genuine change of edge. No one could 
do the turn easily any other way, and no one apparently 
troubled himself much about it; but the change of 
edge fell under some suspicion, and accordingly it was 
given out that this turn, as well as the other allied turns 
(the Counter and the Bracket), should be skated with as 
little change of edge as possible. But if there is any 
change of edge, however slight, — if one finds in his 
action that a change of edge is necessary for the execu- 
tion of the turn, — the performance is a false one. In 
the right execution of the turn, however, it sometimes 
happens that if the body is inclined too much in front, 
the other edge will leave a print. But in such case this 
other edge has not been used, and is actually a hin- 
drance to clean performance; the execution of the turn, 
therefore, is not a false but a faulty one. 

E. Engelmann, at the time of his retirement from a 
victorious skating career, had acquired a method of 
skating the of rocker, peculiar to himself — the other 
rockers he could not then skate. He skates the first 
curve clear to the end with very strong rotation of the 
body, then makes the turn with a jerk, combining vig- 
orous hip action with out-rotation of the body. The 
free foot is held way back, and remains behind the 
skating foot throughout the whole circle. On account 
of the rotation of the body, the position is not graceful; 
throughout the whole second circle it is monotonous, 
and the turn, according to my notion, is more a beak 


than a rocker, because no assistance is received from 
the free foot. The other rockers Engelmann now 

skates, but in quite another 
way, proving by the inconsis- 
tency that there is a fault 
somewhere. Salchow skates the 
of rocker like Engelmann,* 
but the other rockers much as 
I think the best way (Figs. 
381-6). Since Htigel has seen 
Salchow, he skates rockers like 
Salchow. See foot-note, p. 191. 
The fact that all the rockers 
except the of are skated pretty 

381 — rob Rocker 
(Salchow) . 

nearly right seems to prove 
that the of is the hardest. In 
my opinion this rocker is harder 
than the if (4), and consequent- 
ly the value attributed to it in 
the Program (3) wrong, espe- 
cially when compared with the 
if counter with the same value 
(3), which is much easier than 
the of rocker. The if counter 382— rob Rocker 
in itself is not difficult, pro- swing 1, behind 
vided one has control of the inner edge; but there's 

* the rub — the usual want of mas- 
tery over the inside edge. Al- 

thou g h 


S alcho w, 

and his 


H iigel, 

skate the 

of rocker 

in the 


that does 

not pre- 

384 — rob Rocker, 

hard forward edge 

after turn with free 

foot in normal 

383 — rob Rocker, 
swing 3, at turn. 

vent me from declaring and 

proving it to be wrong, because 

it does not meet the established position, well behind. 

requirements. It does not meet the requirements: 1, that 

*Salchow carries his free foot in front instead of behind (Fig. 
376). In the B Rockers Swing 2 is forward just before the turn. 
See p. 193. 


all separate curves after turns must be skated as such, 
in the manner prescribed for such independent curves; 
2, that turns must be skated with equal cooperation of 
body, skating foot, and free foot (this requirement is not 
met here, because the turn is effected by the action of 
the body and the skating foot only); 3, that turns should 
be as nearly as pos- 
sible independent of 
previous swing 
(which is not the case 
here, for the more 
swing one takes the 
bigger one skates, 
and the easier it is to 
accomplish the turn 
in this style); 4, that 
turns must be skated 
clean (which does 386 — rib Rock- 
not happen here, for er, swing 2, in 

385— lib Rocker, the actua l turn is apt J™?*;^ 8 **!!" 
swin£ 1 behind • 1 * ore tne turn - 

(Salchow!) to be a J erk or a tear ' (At the turn > 
and the print is often swing 3, behind, 

only a scraped place where the turn ^Srmlltosi- 
ought to be, — the print does not show tionfor rif, 
at all, or shows only feebly, the trace P- 142.) 

of the spurious serpentine, and is so far, therefore, 
incorrect). See pp. 190 ff. and New Skating, p. 32. 

I have just said that the rocker skated in the Engel- 
mann-Salchow style is easier to do if the skater has a 
vigorous swing, and also the bigger he skates. This ap- 
plies especially to this style; but in general it is easier 
to skate rockers big and at a pace, because you can 
more easily overcome the strong rotation of the body, 
and more easily conceal the false swing established. 
That's the reason why Salchow skates so big. He draws 
the second curve out very straight from the turn, at the 
same time stretches the free foot pretty wide from the 
starting foot, until he has overcome the false swing, 
which he conceals by stiffening up very straight. You 
can hear his vigorous action on the ice and see it also 
in the snow rolled up in his print. Therefore I repeat, 
the less audible the better: for if the rocker is skated 
right, after the turn the swing and the direction of the 
curve are in complete harmony, the print is scarcely 
visible, and the skater glides quite inaudibly on his edge. 


Brackets are combinations of two curves of different 
edge, and changed front but (in ideal perfection) in the 


same general direction, by means of two forced curves 
which in the turn meet at a point at which the change 
of edge is effected. The first curve, thus, ends in a 
forced curve (spurious one-edge serpentine), the second 
curve begins with one. It is clear, therefore, that a 
genuine change of edge does not occur before or after 
the point of a bracket — if it does, it is a fault, and it re- 
mains a fault whether the change is small or great. 
And the case is exactly the same with counters and 
rockers, to the execution of which the execution of 
brackets is quite analogous. Before the turns f to b, 
the free foot is swung in front of the skating foot and 
crossed over it a bit;* at the same time the knee of the 

-■: y - yr -' y: ^:'':v- ■ ■ '.■' ■ ■ v . ■■.■■■■.■.■■■ ■ .-...■■ :,;:■,■ 

387 — rib Bracket (Salchow). Swing 2 of free foot just 
before turn to rof (not now in good form — p. 187) 

employed foot is bent and the upper body turned more 

and more into the correct position for the following 

curve. At this point the free foot is then swung back 

close to the skating foot and crossed over backwards a 

little. Meanwhile, by this movement, the skating leg 

with the skate is given forward pace, describes a forced 

curve, and straightens up at the knee. At the end of 

this movement the point of the turn is reached, and the 

*Salchow in the of bracket omits this movement (Figs. 
388-9,452). See the latest methods of skating brackets, p. 185 ff. 


free foot swings forward close to the skating foot, which 
is now bent again a little at the knee. As the free foot 
begins to swing forward the turn is effected and the 
second half begun with the forced curve. Accordingly, 
we begin the new curve in normal position, with the 
free foot in front. (Cf. p. 186 ff. for present method.) 

Not only on theoretical but on practical grounds, too, 
I have convinced myself that it is right to carry the 

[Salchow skates 
the of bracket 
(like of rocker) 
without swing 
of the free foot. 
The turn is 
made solely by 
body rotation, 
and the free foot 
without assist- 
ing, is merely 
dropped over the 
skating leg, heel 
out, to "bear 
against the j^Qf 
388-rof Bracket curve" again.] ^ 9 _ LOF Bracket 

free foot forward after the turn in f brackets (the 
reverse of course in b brackets) because the turn is 
made easier and surer; and after the turn, by better 
position of body and consequent better transition to the 
second curve, the planes of the swing and the curve can 
be brought easier into more perfect unity; and thereby 
the execution of combinations is facilitated, for each 
movement easily glides into the next, which therefore 

does not always have to be begun 

This method of execution, es- 
pecially the movement of the free 
foot, is the same as in the above 
rocking turns, and is especially 
characteristic of the bracket turn 
as such, whether it is skated alone 
or in combination. The b brackets 
are skated in the way correspond- 
ing to that described for f rockers. 
(Fig. 390.) See p. 187. 

In judging a bracket it is to 
of free foot, justbe- be reckoned a much slighter fault 
fore the turn. Cf. if the point of the turn lies some- 
Fig. 387 what obliquely in the axis, than 
if it is scraped or simply jumped; for then it is not 
skated out clean, and usually one can see from the print 
or the carriage that the swing was not quite right. 


390— lib Bracket 



The Beak Turns, which perhaps in contrast to the 
rocking turns we may better call the kick turns, are 
those allied turns which arise when, from a curve with- 
out any forced curve, therefore without glide or change 
of edge, a curve on the same edge (so far as such turns 
are now practical) follows with a change of front. 

Whether we skate this turn 
(as is yet the usual custom) 
like a beak (Fig. 391) or in the 
form of an eight makes no 
difference. The way to the 
execution of the turn is per- 
haps pointed out by the Engel- 
mann-Salchow style of skat- 
ing the of rocker. This style 

391-BeakandBeakRock- 0f fating the rocker is in 

er without rocking curve reality nothing else than a 

(Salchow's "New" rocker, way of skating the beak or 

of enormous size. Note kick turn; natU rally a forced 

the hook in No. 2, and . , ^ n 

if Fig. 376*.) curve, or, as one might call 

it in special reference to the 
rocking turns, a rocking curve, need not be expected 
here. If the beak-kick turns are to be introduced into 
the school figures, they must be skated in the form of 
eights and in accordance with the given established 
principles. The admission that rocking turns and jerk 
turns (Ruckwendungen) are different, individual, but 
allied turns, which must be kept apart, will be more 
general with further experience of the fact. (Seep. 191.) 
Above I have expressed my ideas on the proper exe- 
cution of the elements of figure skating, as they 
prevail to-day, and the principles underlying them. I 
have investigated the different styles of skating, and I 
have always striven to skate turns of the same kind in 
the same way; and I have found that such systematic 
practice makes more trouble in the beginning, for free 
play cannot be given on every occasion to individual 
peculiarity and momentary feelings; but that if a man 
masters the simple circles in the above described man- 
ner and learns to skate the turns in their own proper 
ways, the subsequent work of polishing off and master- 
ing the combinations is so lightened, that he has a great 
advantage, because the control over his swing is perfect 
and the glide from one step to the next is naturally self- 
generating and spontaneous — only this minute and 
exacting practice must be understood and appreciated 
by those who would criticise it, or it will be an all too 
thankless task. 


I have convinced myself by practical experience that 
the turns skated in the above described manner can be 
learned only when there is the will to learn, the necessary 
attention, and sufficient industry. I have seen turns in 
this style learned, in principle at least, by not very gifted 
skaters in a few days; on the other hand I have had the 
experience of spending all my labor in vain. But the 
fault was attributable neither to me nor to the style, but 
to the indolence, lack of perseverance, and perhaps the 
no great intelligence of the skater in question. Such 
skaters to-day are still laboring in vain with all possible 


The object of this program is to set forth the move- 
ments of figure skating so as best to test the proficiency 
of skaters, and in an order that will economize the 
strength of the contestants. The movements are arranged 
under comprehensive, fundamental heads. It is to be 
understood that whenever practicable all movements are 
to be executed both forward and backward, on right foot 
and on left, and on inside and outside edges. (See p. 136.) 

1. Outside edge roll forward. 

2. Outside edge roll backward. 

3. Inside edge roll forward. 

4. Inside edge roll backward. 

5. Figure eight on one foot forward, single and double 

6. Figure eight on one foot backward, single and 
double circle. 

7. Cross roll forward in field and eights, single and 
double circle. 

8. Cross roll backward in field and eights, single and 
double circle. 

9. Change of edge roll forward, beginning on either 
outside or inside edge. 

10. Change of edge roll backward, beginning on either 
outside or inside edge. 

11. Curved angles — threes, single, double, chain, and 
flying, beginning on inside or outside edge. 

12. Curved angles — rocking turns and counter rock- 
ing-turns from outside edge to outside edge, or inside 
edge to inside edge, forward and backward. 

13. Curved angles — cross-cuts or anvils. 


14. Grapevines. 

15. Toe and Heel movements, embracing pivot cir- 
cling, toe spins (pirouettes) and movements on both toes. 

16. Single and double flat-foot spins, cross foot and 
two-foot whirls. 

17. Loops and Ringlets on inside and outside edges, 
single and in combination. 

If limited as to time the judges may select what is 
thought best. 

This schedule is intended as a guide, as well to skaters 
as to judges, who should continually bear in mind that 
grace is a most desirable attribute to artistic skating. 

The rules of the National Amateur Skating Associa- 
tion are as follows: — 

The officials of a figure-skating competition shall be 
three judges and one scorer. 

The judging shall be done on a scale of points running 
from the number of contestants down to o. Experience 
shows the following to be the most practical method of 
scoring: "The number to be given to the one standing 
first in any section shall be that of the number of contest- 
ants. Should there be two or more of equal merit, they 
should be marked the same number; and the one coming 
next below takes the number resulting from subtracting 
the number of competitors above him from the number 
entered. A total failure is marked zero." A fall does 
not necessarily constitute a failure. 

At the conclusion of each figure each judge shall, with- 
out consultation with his associates, mark the number 
of points which he awards to each competitor. These 
reports shall then be compared, and in case of disagree- 
ment the majority shall decide. The scorer shall keep 
an accurate record of the points allowed to each con- 
testant on each figure. 

In deciding the relative merits of competitors, special 
attention will be given to grace and ease of position, 
accuracy in skating to place and ability to use both feet 
equally well. 

The decision of the majority of the judges shall be 
final in regard to all questions of disqualifications, inter- 
pretations of the program and merits of the competi- 
tors. In case of a tie, the judges shall require the com- 
petitors so tied to skate five specialties each. 

Revision of IQ02. 

On this revision, see p. 136; cf. p. 31. On p. 161 are the 
portraits of the winners under this schedule, except Irv- 
ing Brokaw, '06, whose portrait is on p. 35. 

"He hath changed his style." — Shakespeare,/ H*, 4, 1, 50. 



"Why, is not 
this a lam- 
e n t a b 1 e 
thing, grand- 
sire, that we 
should be 
thus afflicted 
with these 
strange fash- 
who stand so 
much on the 
new form, 
that they can 
not sit at 
ease on the 
old bench?" 
— -Romeo and 
Juliet, 2, 4, 34. 

Edward W. Bassett, 
N. Y., ico7. 

W. F. Duffy, 

N. Y., 1904. 

The "new form" of skating has naturally met a cold 
reception at the hands of the "old guard. ' (See p. 123.) 
But many of the older skaters had already resigned from 

imiifgimi ^i s ^^ U^mm 

■ ~*fr«,,iiV^ 


A. G. Williams, 
Fair Haven, N. J., 1909. 
"Well, may you see things 

well done there; (Minn.) 
Lest our old robes sit 
easier than our new." 
— Macbeth, 2, 4, 38. 

Dr. H. A. Whytock, 
Salt Lake City, Utah, 191 3? 
"It is a maxim, that those to whom 
everybody allows the second place 
have undoubted title to the first." 
— Swift, Dedication to Tale of a 
Tub. (See next page.) 


the National Association, even before the "new skating" 
appeared. See p. 31. The policy of the New York man- 
agement of the N. A. S. A. was not such as to develop the 
best possibilities of general American Skating; and the 
falling off in popular interest has not been difficult to ac- 
count for. (See New Skating, p. 49.) In 1907 the de- 
funct N. A. S. A. was succeeded by the I. S. U. of Ameri- 
ca. It has held only one championship competition in 
the five years of its existence, which was won by Williams, 
at Cleveland, in 1909. Dr. Whytock, who learned figure 
skating from this Handbook, was second; and since he 
has just built himself a private artificial-ice rink, he will 
make a strong demand on Williams for the championship 
at Minneapolis or Syracuse, next February; for Bassett 
has become a professional, and Duffy has retired. 

It is not surprising that loyal skaters who have endured 
the exactions of the American schedule should be preju- 
diced against big-curved skating that aims at grace rather 
than difficulty and at rhythmic harmony rather than ac- 
robatic stunts in small circles on one foot. For a dozen 
years now, we have advocated the International Style not 
because it is foreign, but because it is better; and it is 
better not because every other nation accepts it, but be- 
cause its movements, like the movements of a perfectly 
normal animal, display the maximum economy of effort in 
transforming will into action, — and are therefore graceful 
because most efficient. 

"I should like to impress on those who are going to 
learn to skate in the International Style," writes Mrs. 
Greenhough Smith (English Champion, 1911), that all the 
positions they are taught to place themselves in are not 
merely poses, assumed for effect, and in order to look 
nice. Many beginners start with the idea that the holding 
of the arms and head in a certain position, turning out 
the toe of the unemployed foot, etc., are not essential to 
the correct performance of any figure. When told to pose 
themselves in this way, they become self-conscious, and 
object to making fools of themselves. This idea is quite 
erroneous, but it has aroused a great deal of prejudice in 
some quarters against International Skating. . . Every 
position assumed by expert International skaters has, 
however, a definite object, and is the position which long 
experience has proved to be the easiest, and that which 
is most conducive to the holding of a correct balance on 
any particular edge or turn. . . The reader should learn 
the correct positions from the beginning, so that when he 
reaches the stage when they are essential, they will have 
become easy and natural to him." 

— Winter Sports Review, Sept. 191 2, p. 245. 

"Men's faults do seldom to themselves appear." 

— Shakespeare, Z,«c/v<r<f , 63 3 . 




"Make less thy body and more thy grace. 

— Shakespeare, 2 # 4 , 5, 5, 56. 

The simplification of the art (hinted at on page 123) 
due to the influence of Salchow, ten times World's 
Champion, is continuing in the skating of his successor, 

396. Herr Fritz Kachler, Vienna, World's Champion, 


"If possible, with grace; 
If not, by any means get place." 

— Pope, Horace Ep. t 1,1, 102. 

Fritz Kachler, of Vienna (Fig. 396) and of the other 
national champions for 1912: Rittberger of Germany 
(Fig. 464), Szende of Hungary, Sandahl of Sweden (also 


Champion of Europe), Panin of Russia, Pigueron of 
France, and Cumming of England; also of the profes- 
sionals, Meyer at St. Moritz, the Mullers at Boston, Held 
at Ottawa; and of the accomplished amateur, Irving 
Brokaw at New York (see page 35). By these expert 
skaters the Fuchs swing has been still further reduced 
in back threes, forward brackets and inside back brackets, 
inside rockers, and inside back counters; but Frl. Opika 
von Meray-Horvath, of Buda-Pest, World Champion for 
19 1 2 (Fig. 479), skates in Fuchs's style. The second 
curves of the Mailers' turns (without swing) are always 
in systematic (Fuchs) position. 
"Manner is all in all, whate'er is writ."-CowPER, Table Talk, 260. 

"Ease and speed in doing a "What for a counter would I do 
thing do not give exactness but £. — Shakespeare, As 
of beauty. — Plutarch, Life You Like It, 2, 7, 63. 
of Pericles. 
397, 398. An American Outside Forward Counter 

During the last two years there has been a great 
awakening in New England, New York, Ottawa, and 
Montreal to the appreciation of the fact that the object 
of our skating is not chiefly the execution of difficult 
figures and picture designs (Figs. 357> 358, 504), heedless 
of form, but the attainment of an artistically beautiful 
performance on the ice, which by the grace and charm of 
its movements, may satisfy the aesthetic sense of both 
performers and spectators. Grace, to be sure, is more 
easily recognized in the general effect than analyzed into 
its component elements. "Grace is grace," says Shakes- 
peare, "despite all controversy;" and the philosopher 
Schopenhauer, approving Winckelmann's very true and 


suitable expression, "Grace is the proper relation of 
the acting person to the action," must have had our 
skating in mind when he defined grace as a "perfectly 
adequate expression of a moving person's intention, or 
act of will, in his movements and positions. Every 
movement, therefore, must be made and every position 
assumed in the easiest, most appropriate, and most con- 
venient way; without anything superfluous in either 
movement or position — which would give the effect of 
purposeless or meaningless action or of unnatural posing; 
and without anything lacking in either — which would 
give the appearance of wooden stiffness. As its prime 
condition, therefore, grace presupposes a perfect propor- 
tion of all component parts — a symmetrical, harmonious 
form and figure; since only by means of these can the 
person in action demonstrate the perfect ease and obvious 
appropriateness of all his movements and positions." 
The World as Will and Idea, Book iii, § 45. 

Of course, some are naturally more graceful than 
others. Consequently, no hard and fast rules for the 
position and movements of shoulders, arms, and legs can 
be given; a movement or position which will be graceful 
in one skater's action may be ugly or awkward in 
another's. And in the conscious efforts to get into the 
right positions, too many enthusiasts sometimes get into 
affected, unnatural poses which are the very opposite of 
the spontaneity and unconsciousness of true grace. In 
days not long gone by, a good deal of the Continental 
school-skating was wilfully posed. "One day in January, 
1899," writes Salchow, "when I first came to Davos and 
saw Fellner and Gordan training in the distance, their 
posing with arms and legs and head, and their white 
gloves, struck me so comically that I could n't help 
laughing. Heaven be praised, this style is a thing of the 
past." Quite as much praise is due Salchow himself for 
"this consummation devoutly to be wished." 

The great progress that skating has made here in the 
last two years is in the acceptance of the problem of 
good form as one no less worthy of solution than the 
problem of foot-work on the ice. Though primarily 
aesthetic, this problem of good form is fundamentally 
a physical problem; and its solution therefore is largely 
a matter of a little special muscular training. Strange to 
say, the special development necessary in this direction 
may be attained by simple exercises on the floor even 
better than on the ice! Both experts and beginners may 
thereby save valuable time when the ice comes to devote 
to the purely artistic elements of the sport. 



"In life's small things be resolute and great 
To keep thy muscle trained." 

— James Russell Lowell, Epigram. 

The best professional exponents of such a graceful 
physical art, for example, as the art of dancing, which 
has recently been revived on the stage in so many attrac- 

Wm. H. Fuller, whose tour "Round the World on Skates," 
in 1865, was vividly described in Harper's Magazine for April, 
1870, a most readable and entertaining bit of history. 


tive forms, all testify that they produce the effects of 
lightness, sureness, and ease, by persistent short practice 
in exaggerated positions, far beyond the extreme actually 
demanded of them in artistic performance. May not 
amateur skaters, if they really wish to perfect them- 
selves, take a lesson from this common professional ex- 
perience; and make* similar preparation "off the stage" 
before the "performance" begins? 

The early American experts were equally adept on roll- 
ers or on blades. The absolute necessity of getting on 
to the toe or the heel, to turn at all, is excellent practice 
for acquiring the equally necessary shift of balance for 
turns on the ice; the impossibility of striking from the 
edge, however, complicates the action for ice-skaters, and 
necessitates special regulations for competitive tests on 
rollers. (See W. Stanton's illustrated exposition in the 
new Encyclopedia of Sport.) I am not recommending the 
reproduction of real movements on the ice; but, like the 
easy and graceful dancer, only advising anticipatory or 
supplementary muscular tonics that may expedite the 
acquisition of ease and grace as well as efficiency. Now, I 
have discovered that two or three movements (into four 
extreme positions), standardize all the movements neces- 
sary for the execution of all the International school fig- 
ures. These movements, carried to the extreme, like the 
fancy-dancer's muscular tonics, are not in themselves 
graceful; but I am sure that experienced skaters, who have 
been baffled by some of the difficulties of the harder fig- 
ures, will find most profitable, off the ice, regular short 
practice in those extreme positions, the momentary as- 
sumption of which, in rapid motion on the ice, alone renders 
the execution of so many figures possible in any form at all. 

To try to acquire these momentary extreme positions, 
however, only on the ice, in the normal course of skating 
"for fun," is inevitably to waste, in vainly combating 
the technical difficulties, valuable time of an all too short 
season that ought to be spent enjoying the aesthetic 
refinements of the art. If you cannot get into the re- 
quired position — and a little more — on the floor, you 
cannot quite get into the critical position for a turn or a 
change on the blade of your skate. Between-time exer- 
cise, on only two combined movements, is all that is 
necessary to anticipate the mechanical difficulties, and 
to clear the way for artistic accomplishment in good 
form — the prime virtue of all good sport. 

These two movements are: (standing on the right foot 
— the same movements, reversed, apply to the left foot, 
and should be as faithfully practised as on the right): 


Pos. I. Free-foot Behind Pos. II. Free-foot in Front 

399, 400— FORWARD TWIST— Practice Movements 

"In his house he had a large looking-glass, before which he would 
go through his exercises." — Plutarch, Life of Demosthenes. 

1. Extreme forward twisting of waist and hip muscles 
aided by the {screw) rotation of arms and shoulders. 

Position I. (See Primer, pp. 
16, 17.) 

2. Extreme backward twist- 
ing of the same, aided by the 
{unscrew) rotation of arms and 
shoulders. Position IV. 

By extreme I mean to the 
limit of endurance short of 
strain. Do not force the 
muscles — a little at a time is 
better than too much at once. 
Be sure to carry the hands 
flexed a little upward and 
backward at the wrist — 
palms down, never up; free- 
foot, flexed almost, if not 
quite, straight, usually 
down, never toes up. These 
two movements develop the 
first special requirement of 
the New Skating — strong 
rotary muscles. 

Simultaneously with these 

Pos. V. Turn from II to III 

403 — "Turn on the toe." 
— L. L. L., 5, 2, 114. 


Pos. III. Free-foot in Front Pos. IV. Free-foot Behind 
401, 402— BACKWARD TWIST— Practice Movements 

"Perseverance is more prevailing than violence; and 
many things which cannot be overcome when they are to- 
gether, yield themselves up when taken little by little." 

— Plutarch, Life of Sertorius. 
two movements you should 
combine two others, de- 
veloping two other muscular 
activities peculiarly charac- 
teristic of the New Skating. 
In addition to twisting the 
shoulders, hips, and ankle 
into four extreme positions 
(which you can intensify by 
carrying the free foot as far 
behind as possible, with com- 
pensating forward rock of 
the body (Pos. I, IV), and 
also by carrying the free foot 
as far in front as possible, 
with compensating backward 
rock of the body (Pos. II, 
III), sink low and rise high 
on the standing knee in each 
extreme position, so as to de- 
velop thigh and calf mus- Pos. VI. Turn from IV to I 
cles necessary for a strong 404— "Took heel to do't." 
"springy" knee — the second — Cymb., 5, 3, 67. 


muscular requirement, indispensable for easy turns and 
changes of edge on the ice. The push or pull from the 
skate-edge just before and after a turn or change of 
edge, with the aid of this dip-rise-dip of the skating leg, 
is the greatest source of power within command of the 
skater; and consequently a stiff knee is one of his greatest 
handicaps. English skaters are even stiffer-kneed than 
American and Continental skaters (cf. Figs. 159, 477), but 
they are flatter-shouldered: i. e. they carry their shoul- 
ders more nearly in the plane of the skating foot, not at 
right angles to the line of progression, as American skaters 
do. (Cf. Fig. 162). See Primer, p. 14. 

405— Pos. IV 1 — Backward 

"Outside or inside." 
— K; /., 5, 2, no. 

406— Pos. IV*— Forward 

"And neither way inclines." 
— A. C, 3, 2, SO. 

The third cooperative element requiring special train- 
ing is therefore the most important of all, because the 
most difficult for American skaters to acquire. With 
the backward twist of the shoulders there should also go 
an equally vigorous "spread-eagling" of the free leg, not 
only at the ankle, but also at the knee and the hip. (Pos. 
IV). This is the key to the whole situation, if pros- 
perity may be said to depend upon any one element. 
The temporary assumption of this apparently strained 
position is so necessary for the successful execution of 
most steps and all turns on the ice, that no pains should 


be spared to attain the requisite flexibility, even tho' the 
"spread-eagle" as an independent two-foot figure, is 
not a very graceful acrobatic accomplishment. (Fig*. 
409, 410). Held on one foot, however, at great pace on 
the ice in large backward spirals (Figs. IV, IV 1 , IV 2 , 
408, 425, 467), this approximate "spread-ergle" position 

407 — Normal rob Half-way Round 408 — rob Spiral 

Practice movements III, IV, in action on the ice. 

409 — Both Feet on the Ice 

Before straightening the legs. 

410 — The Spread-eagle 

Legs straightened. 

not only makes an effective and therefore graceful figure, 
but offers the best possible practice for control of balance 
and edge. The acquisition of this control and the artistic 
use of it, rather than special strength or peculiar physical 
endowment, is the price of success. The fiction of "weak 
ankles" and of "not being built right" will disappear 
with a little intelligent appropriation of the results of 
recent experience. Of course, youth is the best time to 
acquire this muscular control quickly; but it is not 
generally appreciated how much may gradually be ac- 
quired or kept up even after middle age. No ordinary 


exercise with which I am familiar, whether forced by 
labor or taken for fun, yields the "spread-eagle" as a 
by-product. Yet without a close approximation to the 
'spread-eagle" position (Pos. IV 1 , IV 2 , the arms 
stretched for balance,) none of the turns on the ice and 
few of the transition steps can be skated easily. 

Varied from the four positions illustrated above, only 
by a slight tilt of the body sidewise from the ankle (making 
outside or inside edges) or by a turn of the head (looking 
forward or backward), these sixteen extreme positions in- 
clude all the cardinal positions required to execute the 
prescribed schedule of the International Skating Union; 
and they may all be perfected on the floor, before the ice 
comes, by a few minutes' practice a day. 

It is good practice to take the four positions one after 
another, on one foot and then on the other. When you 
can keep your balance on one foot, you may combine 
them successively into one continuous movement; thus, 
when you get to Pos. II, intensify rotation by dropping 
the balance-foot still farther round (swing i). Lift it a 
trifle with the turn (movement V, p. 168) on the toe from 
f to b (swing 2), so as to be able to drop it in front as you 
get round b (swing 3, into Pos. III). When you get to 
Pos. IV, drop the balance-foot close to the standing-foot 
at the limit of rotation (swing 1). Lift it a trifle at the 
turn (movement VI, p. 169) on the heel from b to f 
(swing 2), so as to be able to drop it behind as you get 
round f (swing 3, into Pos. I again), and repeat on the 
same foot. Then do the sequence on the other foot. 
Continuous rocker eights on one footl See p. 190. 

"A man may skate (write) at any time if he will set him- 
self doggedly to it." — Boswell's Johnson, iv. 2, 1773- 

An unsympathetic reader may think that this is turning 
pleasure into work and taking the poetry out of the art. 
Nothing is farther from my intention. To be sure, "No 
profit grows where there is no pleasure ta'en." {Taming 
of the Shrew, I, 1, 39); but my purpose is the very oppo- 
site — to put "poetry" in, by enabling all readers the 
better to imitate the positions in the illustrations and to 
profit by the supplementary hints in the text, to the end 
that their skating may the more quickly be more accu- 
rate, more artistic, and therefore more satisfying. 

"There is nothing so easy but that it becomes difficult 
when you do it with reluctance." — Terence, Heaut. 805. 

Before taking up the figures in detail, the reader may 
well familiarize himself with a few general principles, 
based on the most recent experience of the best experts. 




For general rules, see our Skating Primer, p. 20 and the 
first Separate Cards. Review carefully the shape of each 
diagram and the official requirements, pp. 126 ff. The 
ends of the circles in the plain eights, threes, and loops 
should neither intersect nor fall short of each other; they 
should just touch, as in the new diagrams, pp. 127-8. 

1. Don't try too hard. Being too tense prevents the 
skate from running. Especially after turns, relax and 
"let yourself go." (On "Swing," see the Primer, p. 

2. Most skaters find it especially difficult to make the 
inside back "run" with sufficient pace and go. About 
half way through the circle, when the balance-foot is 
leading, pull it back close to the skating-foot, straighten 
the skating-leg with a gentle little snap, and at the same 
time bring the arms quickly to the side. When you get 
the knack, this simultaneous contraction will materially 
assist every inside back edge (Held). The old way of 
looking at the starting-point is equally efficient, and is 
the only way allowed in competitions (Muller). 

3 . In the change of edge, the swing of the balance-foot 
is so soft that it seems to be stationary while the skating- 
foot catches up and passes by it. The essential factor is 
the timely and efficient straightening of the skating-leg 
at the change. Don't kick. Shoulders square at change. 

4. Before all turns, get the weight over or ahead of the 
skating-foot, and bend the skating-knee after the turn. 

5. To facilitate placing turns, take a quick glance down 
just at the turn: on forward turns, at the toe of the 
balance-foot; on backward turns, at the heel of the 
balance-foot. In making big eights symmetrical, look 
across at the opposite turn just before doing the back 

6. On forward threes, approaching the turn, keep the 
balance-foot behind; on backward threes, pull it round 
in front with the turn. It is still good form to drop the 
balance-foot behind at the turn form ib to of, as 
hitherto. See top p. 183. 

7. In all the brackets, a peculiar little sway of the body, 
before the turn, puts you on a keen edge, which helps 
make clean prints. Since the shoulders are flat to the 
print, this movement is a kind of "Spread-eagle wave." 


8. Approaching the turn of a f rocker, let the ankle 
"slump" into a very hard edge; take a quick glance 
at the turn, which you compel by the twist of the hips, 
and look over the balance-elbow as you force it round 
behind, to hold out the curve. Don't look over the 
shoulder until after the turn. Just before the turn, cross 
the balance-foot over the print, and leave it in front 
after you make the turn (solely by means of the skating- 
leg). See p. 191, and Deutscher Winters 'port, Jan. 17, 1913. 

9. Both before and after the turn, the balance-foot in 
the if rocker may be kept in front; in the ib rocker, 
behind. But it is easier to let it pass by a little, just 
before the turn. So of ail rocking-turns (Muller) . 

10. The Fuchs swings (reduced) are more often retained 
in the counters; but don't let the balance-shoulder come 
forward before the outside forward counter turn; begin 
the second curve wth right shoulder leading, as in every 
normal ob. (See, however, p. 188.) 


See diagrams, p. 127, newly redrawn to conform to the 
latest art. Though the distinctive characteristic of this 
skating is its system, it must not be inferred that there is 
any less opportunity for individuality. Cf. New Skating, 
p. 4, 32. Slight differences occur in the methods of execu- 
tion of most experts. Fuchs, for example, applies his 
theory of equal cooperation of skating-leg, balance-leg, 
and body perhaps to an extreme, and at times gets in too 
much swing of the balance-foot. On the other hand, 
Salchow, Meyer, and their imitators, go to the other ex- 
treme perhaps in cutting out the swing, and, by skating 
too much with the body, execute the second curve of some 
of their turns in a wrong position, p. 188, p. 191. The 
tendency to reduce the motions as much as possible is 
surely commendable from the point of efficiency and 
therefore grace. Consequently those who do not begin 
the shoulder rotation in the of and ob circles until half- 
way through (the Mullers) seem better to imitate than 
those who begin to rotate at once (Meyer, Panin). Back 
curves should always be begun with the free-foot in front; 
the balance-foot is carried over the print, rarely across. 
The methods advised here, if different from those advised 
in the Primer, are thought better adapted to maturer 


t. Outside Forward Eight (1) Practice movements I 
and II, p. 168). Cf. p. 141. Study the illustrations 


411 — rof Start — Salchow 
"Straining upon the 
start." — H.\ 3, i, 32. 

412 — rof Start — Fuchs 
"The motion's good, in- 
deed."— T. S., 1, 2, 280. 

413 — Rotation 
of Shoulders, 


carefully. A more detailed exposition 
in Primer, p. 26. Observe the start, 

Figs. 411 
and 412, 
flat, left 
and arm 

Don't begin to rotate 
(screw round) the shoulders 
too early (as in Fig. 413) but 
keep the balance-foot be- 
hind and over the print as 
long as you can, so as to 
steer the print into a full 
circle. Figs. 414, 415. Cf. 
Figs. 429, 437, 455- (On 
the full-circle swing as con- 
trasted with the spiral 
swing, see Primer p. 25). 
Bend the skating-leg 
at the beginning, and 
stretch the balance-leg at 
the end. When the twist 
at the hips pulls the bal- 
ance-leg round, %-% through the circle, straighten up, 
rock back, and stretch the balance-leg round in front, with 

*G. Miiller (Boston Arena), like Salchow now, starts with 
right arm outstretched instead of bent like Fuchs's, and doesn't 
begin to rotate until half through the circle. 


414 — Right Outside Forward 

Nat: W. Niles. 

"Insinewed to this action, 
Acquitted by a true substantial 
form." — 2 HA, 4, 1, 173. 

415 — rof, Over Half Way 

416 — rof, Last Quarter 

slightly bent knee and toe down and in to catch a strong 
outside edge. Fig. 416. 

Finish the first curve on a short inside edge; from 
which, thrust on to the second curve, shoulders almost 
flat, right shoulder and arm behind. Fig. 437. The 
thrusting foot, as on all forward curves, drops behind, 
over the print, "bearing against the curve." 

Look over the skating-shoulder. Don't let the body 
make an angle at the hips or the neck. To avoid the 
latter, move the head around until it feels as if it were 
tilting toward the centre more than the rest of the body. 
This slight^ movement, which will keep the neck straight 
but not stiff, will materially help in rounding out the 
circle. (Held.) 

2. Inside Forward Eight (1) {Practice movements 
I and III). The principle of balance is just the 
opposite — shoulder against balance-foot. (See Primer p. 
28). Balance-foot goes forward as 
comes back; therefore, begin with for- 
ward rock of body on strongly bent 
knee, shoulders screwed forward ready 
to unscrew, and balance-foot stretched 
out behind and over the print, 
"bearing against the curve," ready to 
swing forward. My snap-shots of Sal- 
chow, p 142, aptly illustrate the se- 
quence of the movements. Cf. Fig. ..- n 

■n , A ., , . . ° 417 — Rotation 

417. For more detailed exposition, of shoulders, rif. 
see Primer, p. 28. Cf. Fig. 418, 
Rittberger on rif; Fig. 478, Mrs. Syers on lif. 

At the end of the first circle, inside shoulder well down, 
turn the balance-foot well out so as to catch a strong 
inside edge at the beginning of the second circle. 

3. Outside Back Eight (1) (Practice movements 



418 — rif Spiral — Rittberger 
"As if that whatsoever god who leads him 
Were slyly crept into his human powers 
And gave him graceful posture. " 

— Coriolanus y 2, 1, 235. 

Ill and IV). After the push-off, trail the thrusting 

foot behind, over the print; i.e. leave it in front of the 

skating-leg, the right shoulder leading. 

Don't unscrew the shoulders until 
half through the first circle (Cf. 419). 
This backward twist will pull the bal- 
// )*■ \ ance-foot round. Let it come with all 
its weight, about 3^ through the circle 
(or after, if you can hold it) ; follow it 
round with the head, and spread- 
eagle it well back over the print. (See 
419 — Rotation Figs. 361, Salchow; 408, 425, 486, 

of Shoulders, rob. Mrs. Syers). 

Panin, but not Muller. Bring the feet close together at the 

end of the circle, and strike off from a short inside edge. 

For more detailed exposition, see Primer, p. 29. 

4. Inside Back Eight (2) {Practice movements II 
and IV). Most difficult to get up pace from rest so 
as to skate the first circle big enough. Therefore No. 4 
counts 2. The method illustrated in my snap-shots of 


Salchow, p. 13s, is still the best. 
Panin's rotation and carriage of head 
(indicated by the short arrows, Fig. 
420) is not so popular, though more 
necessary in the advanced figures. 

On account of the difficulty of bal- 
ance, with free-foot in front, the circle 
has to be begun with the right shoul- 
der and arm well back. As soon as 420— Rotation 
, m „ „„ _.+ •„ +i * ,1 of Shoulders, rib. 

you are set on the edge, reverse the 

rotation; unscrew, and pull the balance-foot back, 
ahead of the skating-foot. 

There are now two other ways of finishing: (1) spread- 
eagle the balance-foot and follow it with your eyes nearly 
to the end (Cf. IV 1 if tilted inwards, p. 170); or (2) apply 
the exceptional contraction and stiffening described on 
P- 173, general hint 2. Cf. Fig. 426 (only both hands 
should be close to the body, the heels nearly together, 
and the legs almost English in their straightness). This 
way is a violation of the system, and would not be 
allowed in competition; but it is good practice, and the 
skate will "run" if you get the knack. 

Keep your eyes on the starting point almost to the end 
of the circle. 


A half circle on one edge and a full circle on the other. 
This kind of three-lobed eight is called a paragraph 
(misnamed, like bracket (p. 48) from 
resemblance to another symbol, §). 
The positions for the curves in 
combination, forward and backward, 
are exactly the same as for the 
curves apart. See diagram, Fig. 421. 
The movements are well described 
on p. 147; more fully, in Primer, 
pp. 32 ff, New Skating, 19-20. This 
change differs from the American 
change of edge in the much qui- 
eter movement of the balance-leg. 
(See p. 173, general hint 3). Don't 
let it stray far away; swing it as 
nearly over the print as possible. 
The body rotates on the skating- 

4 2i Change of ^ip» — as t ' ie mner shoulder comes 

Edge back, the balance-foot goes forward, 

Paragraph-Eight and vice versa, with compensating 



rock of the body in the opposite direc- 
tion. See Fig. 421a. 

Outside Forward to Inside Forward. 
5a (1) First half, ROF to RIF— At A, Fig. 
421, start right shoulder back, with back- 
ward rock of body on deep bent knee to 
catch a sharp edge, balance-foot in front 
(Fig. 422); at B, skating-leg straightens 
and skating-foot catches up with the qui- 
R escent balance-foot (Fig. 423) which drops, 

tion of Shoul- as body rocks forward, and crosses over 
ders roif behind, at the same time that the left arm 
stretches forward and the skating-foot 
settles into inside forward edge at C (Fig. 424). 

"The rest of the eight."— J?. /., 3, 1, 83. 

Inside Forward to Outside Forward. Second half, 
LIF to LOF — A 1 to B 1 with similar back rock and pull 
of right shoulder, carry balance-foot forward as in Fig. 
480, riof, Frl. Rendschmidt, Berlin; 
straighten at B 1 ; and as skating-foot 
catches up and bites into the outside 
edge, lean hard toward centre and 
press the balance- 
foot behind the 
print, C 1 , to hold 

424 — After 

423 — At out tn e curve, as 

Change in Fig. 374, p. 147, 


Outside Back to Inside Back. 

6a. (2). First half— -ROB to RIB. 

A-B, balance-foot well behind, Fig. 
425. Straighten at B, feet passing rather more quickly, 
but close together, as always; B-C, balance-foot in 
front, Fig. 426, subsequently to be pulled back for nor- 
mal finish of the inside back run (p. 177). 

422— Before 

Inside Back to Outside Back. 
to LOB. A 1 to Bi, balance-foot 

Second half- 
way behind 




425 — roib, Before Change 426 — roib, After Change 

across, ska ting-knee deeply bent (as in 6b. Fig. 427, rib); 

straighten at B 1 and see-saw balance-foot in front, as body 

sinks into the outside back curve, and 

hold it there (as in Fig. 428, rob; one 

foot eight, or back loop, — rather more 

vigorous than a simple change) until the 

backward twist of the shoulders pulls it 

out, as in normal ob. See also Fig. 446, 

(rob), and Cf. p. 195. 

"Don't kick. Take as much weight as 
you can off the ice at the change, and 
put as much as you can into the bites. 
This is the secret of all the turns: dip, 
and rise for the turn, and 'sit down' 
hard on the second curve/ ' — New Skat- 
ing, p. 20. 

(See p. 144, Primer, p. 35, New Sk. 21-22). 

Outside Forward Three. 7 (1). 
First half — ROF Three-IB. Begin 
with left shoulder and arm well for- 
ward, Fig. 429. Cf. 474. Get weight 
over the skating-foot at the turn. Make 
the turn holding back the left shoulder, 
Fig. 430 (reverse before turn necessary 
only for beginners; shoulder position for 
second curve held through all turns) . The 
skating-foot now shoots under the body 
restores equilibrium, and increases the 
pace, Fig. 43 1. Sink hard on the second 
curve and prevent it from curling in by 
looking hard over the balance-shoulder, 
spread-eagling the balance-leg, and 
spreading the arms for balance, Fig. 
432. (Cf. Practice step IV 1 , p. 170). 

180 • 

428 — riob 
After Change 

427 — riob 
Before Change 

429 — rof Three 

Left shoulder forward. 

430 — rof Three 

Left shoulder held back at turn. 

431 — rof Three 432 — rof Three 

Just after turn. Holding out second curve. 

Second half, LOF Three-IB. If you have the balance- 
leg spread-eagled enough, you will have no difficulty in 
beginning the lof three in the proper direction to 
" place" the eight symmetrically. The little girl, Figs. 43 3 , 
434 will have difficulty. Why? 

f - 1 

433 — rof Three 

Before the turn. 

434 — rof Three 

After the turn. 

435 — lob Three 

After the turn. 

Inside Forward Three ga (1). First half — RIF 
Three-OB. Note that the rif curve for a three begins 
with the right shoulder leading instead of the left. Force 


the turn by pressing the balance-foot over the print, and 
spread-eagle it for the regular finish of an ob curve. 

Inside Back Three 8 (2). First half, the same as 7; sec- 
ond half, LIB Three-OF. This inside back three counts 
twice as much because the turn, which is made by the 
hips, is harder. Have shoulders flat over the print at the 

"Nor attend the foot That leaves the print." 
— King John, 4, 3, 26. 

436 — lib Three 

Before the turn. 

437— lib Three 
After the turn. 

438— rob Three 

Before the turn. 

439— rob Three 
After the turn. 

turn. Unscrew, until you can see the heel of skating-foot 
over your left shoulder. Fig. 436. Make the turn with a 
snap on the heel of your skate, and carry the balance- 
foot round in front into the normal position for finishing 
the lof (as in rof, Fig. 416). This method is essential 
for a successful three-change-three (p. 195); but for plain 
threes it is better to leave the balance-foot unchanged 
during the turn: and just after, give it a quarter turn, as 
you turn the knee over when the balance-leg drops softly 
inside the print, into normal position for beginning the 
lof curve, Fig. 437. The left arm may be stretched. 


Outside Back Three ga. Second half, LOB 
Three-IB. The back three is made in two ways: (i) 
The old way was to draw the balance-foot round just 
before the turn, make a loop in the air with it, and cross 
it diagonally over the skating-foot into normal position 
for the finish of an if curve (Fig. 435, Mrs. Syers). See 
diagram of the movement on Card 7. (2) A new way 
is to leave the balance-foot behind, Fig. 438, and pull it 
around (gb ROB-IB, Fig. 439) by the twist of the hips 
at the turn, as in the ib three. Don't turn until you can 
see the heel of your skating-foot over your skating- 
shoulder, which is flat over the line of the print. The 
most approved way is to skate (1), like Herr Muller, 
without the loop in the air. 


The new way of skating the outside back three is the 
way to skate the second turn of the inside forward double 
three. The balance-foot, however, may be kept behind 
all through the outside forward double-three. Other- 
wise, the double threes are skated in the same way as the 
single threes. Take pains to place your turns symmetri- 
cally. Begin with a sharp edge, and have courage to 
"let yourself go round the corners." It is hardest, of 
course, to acquire pace in the ib double three, which 
therefore counts 2. Skate all forward turns on the front 
part of the blade, all backward turns on the back part 
of the blade, as in single turns. 

LOOPS (See p. 145.) 

Loops begin slowly on a sharp edge, with the shoulders 
in the position of threes, not of the simple curves; and, 
like back threes, require a good deal of hip action, in 
addition to increased rotation of the shoulders. The 
knack is, in outside loops, not to increase the rotation 
too soon; and not to let the balance-foot come into action 
until the turn is practically assured by the shoulder rota- 
tion alone; in inside loops, to force the loop by pressing 
the weight of the balance-leg and foot against the curve, 
and assisting with a supplementary rotation of the 
shoulders and stretching of the balance-foot. The knack 
is fugitive; and experts have to practice daily, or lose it. 
(See Primer p. 40 ff.; New Skating 23 if. with illuminat- 
ing photographs of Panin, Salchow, Hiigel, and Meyer; 
and study the notes to Cards 11-13). 

14- Outside Forward Loop (2), Fig. 474 (Salchow). 
"If the left shoulder is not carried far enough round in 
the direction of progression (Fig. 440, 474) the rotation 
will be uneven, and a cross-cut instead of a loop will 







s > 


'C ^< 

/ > 



440 — In the Loop 442 — Coming Out 

result." — Salchow. See p. 103. Fig. 440, going into the 
loop by body rotation; balance-foot lagging passively 
behind describing a loop in the air (as in all loops) Fig. 
441. Two-thirds through the loop, the ska ting-leg 
straightens and the balance-foot be- 
comes active, Fig. 442, rounding out the 
second curve. See Brokaw (19 13), p. 54. 

15. Inside Forward Loop (2). Be- 
gin with the body bent forward, right 
shoulder and arm leading, balance-foot 
outside the print "bearing against the 
curve." Fig. 443, quick supplementary 
rotation of the shoulders in the lif loop. Fig. 444, 
skating-leg straight, balance-foot stretched forward, fairly 
high, and arms at side, to prevent second curve from 
curling in. 

441 — Loop in 
the Air 

443— Going In 444 — Coming Out 

16. Outside Back Loop (2). Begin slowly so as to kill 
as much rotation as possible at the start and get a long 
first curve, with strong backward twist, free-foot in front. 
(Practice movement III, p. 169). Look over the left 
shoulder at skating heel. Fig. 445, going into the loop; 


445 — rob Loop 

Going in. 

447 — rob Loop 

Coming out. 


Fig. 446, Salchow in the loop; Fig. 447, coming out; Fig. 
425, skating out the second curve as big as the first. 

Inside Back Loop (2). Balance-foot well over the 

- I print, skating-leg 

bent, on a keen 
edge. Fig. 448, 
Vinson (one of the 
best American skat- 
ers of loops) going 
into the rib loop on 
the front part of 
the skate; Fig. 449, 
well out of the loop, 
the stretched bal- 
ance-foot and arms 
already contracted, 
to "run out" the 
second inner back 
curve in erect pose. 
Back loops, both 
outside and inside, 
are skated on the 
front part of the 


pp. 48, 70, 155 ff.) 

See general hint 
446 — In rob Loop — Salchow. 7> P- 173 • The 

<-r ■jj juuiuui j shoulders cannot be 
lurn giddy, and be holp by backward 

turning."—/?. /., 1 , 2, 48. to ° flat to the P nnt - 


' 'Forward brackets are skated on the front part of the 
blade; back brackets, on the heel. The sharper the edge, 
and the quicker the turn, the better the print" — Salchow* 

"O, you do not give spirit enough to your motion; you 

are too tardy, too heavy! O, it must be done like lightning." 

— Ben Jonson, Every Man in His Humor, 4, 7, 12. 

E.g., Fig. 450, A, first 
edge not sharp enough, 
or body not inclined 
enough toward centre; 
B, inadequate shoul- 
der-rotation; i. e., the 
balance-shoulder not 
drawn far enough back, 
and not pressed far 
enough forward again. 
The action of the hips 
is quite as important 
as the action of the 
shoulders in effecting 449 — RIB Loop 
the rapid turn. Coming out. 



448 — rib Loop 

Going in. 

450 — Imperfect Bracket Prints — Salchow 

"Inclining to them both." — W. T., 1, 2, 304. 

iSa. Outside Forward Bracket (3). First half, ROF- 
IB. Do not carry the balance-foot before the turn in 
front of the skating-foot as in Fig. 45 r (Meyer), but 

453 — rof Bracket 

After the turn. 

452 — lof Bracket 

Without swing. 

451 — rof Bracket 

With swing. 

approach the turn leaning back in a "spread-eagle wave." 
Fig. 452 lof (Salchow). Keep left shoulder forward 
after the turn, balance-foot rather high across the print 
(Figs. 453, 388, and 389, P- *S7)> until well set on the in- 
side back, and then finish in normal form. 


180. Inside Back Bracket. Second half, LIB-OF. Do 
not swing the balance-foot in front of the skating-foot 
before the turn as in Fig. 390, p. 157 (Salchow), but (in 

455 — lib Bracket 

After the turn. 

454 — lib Bracket 

Before the turn. 

bracket-change-bracket, only, p. 195) leave it ahead, Fig. 
454, and, with little change in the pose of the body, flip it 
across the print, heel out, in front for the finish of a lof 
curve. (Cf . Fig.?444.) In simple brackets, drop it behind 
at the turn into normal position for the lof half through 
the circle, Fig. 455, and then pull it round in front. 

19a. Inside Forward Bracket (3). First half, RIF- 
OB. There is now no swing back of balance-foot before the 
turn, either outside 
(Salchow, Card 18) 
or inside the print 
(Meyer, Card i8, ( 
note). Make the 
turn with the bal- 
ance-foot motion- 
less, across the 
print, Fig. 456; 
after the turn, drop 
it across inside the 
print as in Fig. 457, 
but spread-eagle 

456— RiFBracket the knee more ' as 
Before the turn. m Practice Step IV 
or IV 1 , p. 170. 

457 — rif Bracket 

After the turn. 

Outside Back Bracket. Second half, 19b. ROB-IF. 
There is a little Fuchs swing in this bracket. The curve 
begins, of course, with the balance-foot in front, inside 


the print, but with the 
rotation opposite to the 
normal ob, Fig. 458 
(Salchow). A little 
over half through the 
first curve, swing bal- 
ance-foot backward at 
the same. time that the 
skating foot bites into 459— After turn! 458— Before turn. 
a keen edge for pace ROB Bracket-SAicnow. 

(Cf. Primer, p. 25). 

Now lean toward the centre, carry the balance-foot back 
again, close to the skating-foot, a little inside the print, 
ready at the flip of the turn to drop it over the print into 
the spread-eagle position, Fig. 459, (Salchow's head is not 
right) as in Practice Position IV 2 , p. 170. This would be 
the exact position on the ice if it were leaning forward 
on an inside edge. 

"He was not inclined that way." — M. M., 3, 2, 130. 

COUNTERS (See pp. 47, 70, 99, 151 ft). 
Counters, correctly named, because, like brackets, the 
rotation is opposite or counter to the rotation for threes 
(thus forcing the curve before the turn) might be made 
like the latest brackets, without the first Fuchs swing; 
but the second curve being on the same edge as the first, 
and having no false serpentine after the turn, seems to 
require more action of the balance-foot before the turn. 
The three swings, however, succeed each other so closely, 
that they are almost one composite movement in this 
time: . 

22a. Outside Forward Counter (3). First half, ROF- 
OB. When half through the first half-circle, carry the 
balance foot forward (swing 1); just before the turn, 
carry it back a little with slight counter shoulder rota- 
tion (swing 2), that it may drop in front of the skating- 
foot after the turn (swing 3), into normal position for ob, 
right shoulder leading, to be pulled out round for pace 
(swing 4) and spread-eagled to hold out the curve, 
Fig. 408 or Fig. 381. (Since pace is so hard to get in the 
second curve of a forward rocker, why shouldn't it be 
started in normal position with the free foot in front, 
like the second curve of this counter? Cf. Practice 
Movement III, and see p. 190). Too much swing is apt 
to produce a change of edge before the counter turn, and 
after the rocker; therefore, reduce swing to minimum. 

Meyer is now striving, by keeping the left the leading 
shoulder from the start, to make the print of his forward 

counter, like his forward rocker, without forced curve — \ 
like a beak, Fig. 391, p. 158. Miiller omits swings 2, 3. 
Outside Backward Counter. Second half, LOB-OF 
Swing 1, backward, a little tardy; swing 2, forward, 
short, light, and quick, just before the turn, close to 
skating-foot: and swing 3, backward, at the turn, close 
by the skating-foot, into position for lof half through 
the curve, Fig. 455. The position of the feet before the 
turn is as in on bracket p. 188; and after, as in IB 
bracket, Fig. 455. m 

23a. Inside Forward Counter (3 ). First half, RIF-IB. 
Swing 1, forward as the shoulders screw round forward 
counter to the curve; swing 2, backward, gently, before 
the turn; and swing 3, quietly forward and across the 
print, as the skating-foot sinks into the ib. The turn 
throws the shoulders into an ideal position for a vigorous 
inside back — not alt screwed round as at the beginning 
of an ib from rest (p. 178), but unscrewed (Cf. Practice 
Movement III, on a strong inside backward inclination) 
so as to screw forward naturally (with forward rock of 
body and simultaneous backward swing of balance-foot) 
into an inside back circle of great pace and go. (Cf. New 
Skating, pp. 30, 31). 

461 — lib Counter 

After the turn. 

Ji^ k^"^ 

460 — lib Counter 

Before the turn. 

Inside Back Counter. Second half, LIB-IF. If the 

body is spread-eagled enough on bent skating-leg, Fig. 
460, the balance-foot, passing by the skating-foot and 
close to it, just at the turn, may drop behind almost in 
one continuous movement, into normal position for lif, 
Fig. 461. Again, the turn puts the shoulders into an 
ideal twisted position for a natural screw rotation (with 
backward rock of the body and simultaneous forward 
swing of balance-foot), into a powerful inside forward 
edge. This inside forward twist it is not difficult to get 


from rest, p. 176. May not the skating of the future 
achieve from rest the same powerful inside back that 
comes off an inside forward counter? 

The balance-foot may be brought back close to the 
skating-foot before the turn (swing 1) carried forward a 
trifle at the turn (swing 2). as the skating-leg straightens, 
and then dropt behind (swing 3, Fig. 461) as the skating- 
leg sinks into the inside forward edge. (Siting 2 is thus, 
as often, only a little hitch in a continuous movement, 
made when the skating-leg is straightening and lightening 
the weight at the turn). 

ROCKERS (See pp. 47, 70, 97, 151 if). 

The rotation necessary to effect a turn from a large 
outside forward half-circle to a large outside backward 
full-circle on the same foot, makes it so difficult to begin 
the ob curve according to the system (with the free-foot 
in front), that most skaters of to-day have given up 
trying. I cannot believe, however, that skaters are not 
soon forthcoming who can so stretch their muscles that 
just before the turn they can even swing the balance-foot 
round over in front and backward, (swing I, Cf. Practice 

Movement II), not along- 
side like Fuchs, Fig. 462, 
(Cf. Fig. 37s 2 and 37Q 2 ), 
lift it a trifle with the 
turn (swing 2) Fig. 403, 
and then (as in the 
change from IB to ob, 
and similarly in the 
counter turn from of to 
ob, p. 188) drop it into 
normal position in front, 
(swing 3. Cf. Practice 
Movement III). It can 
then be swung around 
with such momentum 
(Practice Movement IV or IV 1 ) that the intensified pace 
will enable the skater not only to complete the circle but 
to put in a back rocker on the same foot, (Cf. Practice 
Movement VI, Fig. 404, into Position I), and complete 
another circle (Practice Movement II again), a continuous 
rocker eight! See p. 172. Just as the elementary serpen- 
tine (5, 6), three (26, 27), loop (30, 31), and bracket (32, 
33) paragraph eights are skated as one foot eights in the 
advanced figures, so the rOcker (20, 21) and counter 
(22, 23) paragraph eights should be skated in the ad- 
vanced figures as one foot circular eights, with the turns 

462— Fuchs 463 —Meyer 
Swing Twist 

"Tell me, Andronicus, doth 
this motion please thee? " 

— T. J., 1, 1, 243. 


at the centre instead of on the circumference. I do not 
believe it all theory*, though on the fingers of two hands 
we can reckon all the skaters in the world to-day who can 
skate even the rocker-paragraph perfectly on each foot. 
With a running start, as in an American contest, or with 
a partner, almost any clever skater can skate single turns, 
and some cut attractive designs, regardless of form, Figs. 
357-8; but to skate rocking turns to place in big eights, 
in good form, without a change of edge within a yard 
or two of the turn — that's the New Skating! 

20a. (4) Outside Forward Rocker (See General Hint 
8, P- 174). First half, ROF-OB. Strong screw twist of 
shoulders (Practice Movement II, p. 168). Carry 
balance-foot forward very close to skating-foot and round 
across in front. Twist vigorously the skating-hip, and 

* Since writing the above, I have chanced upon the following 
confirmation of my suspicion that the dominating influence of 
Salchow in this direction, the last ten years, has not been alto- 
gether salutary. Mr. Ed. S. Hirst, an accredited I.S.U. judge, 
and a smooth, easy, even skater of the first rank, says: "The 
skaters in this class (European or World's Championship) can 
be counted on the fingers of one hand quite easily; and for the 
last nine or ten years one man, namely Salchow, has practi- 
cally stood alone. One might say he is in a class by himself. 
It is nearly impossible to catch him in a bad or unnatural posi- 
tion, no matter what he is skating, whether in compulsory 
figures or free skating. In certain movements, probably, he is 
not so graceful as Hiigel, Fuchs, and Bohatsch; but the only 
real exception to his excellence is his position after the turn in a 
forward outside rocker, when he keeps his unemployed leg in a 
sadly bent, unnatural position for the rest of the figure (Figs. 
376, 466). Most of the other first-class skaters adopt the same 
position in this one figure, but it is bad. Salchow's mark on the 
ice is more of a beak than a rocker should be (cf. p. 158, 154-5). 
He makes indeed absolutely no change of edge, and gets a per- 
fectly steady curve, but his position after the rocker is not correct. 
The mark of a rocker should be more like a bracket and not 
like a beak. Fuchs* s method and position are the right ones to 
adopt* and his mark on the ice is more what it should be. I 
admit that with him there is more danger of getting a change of 
edge^, but I have seen him, and also Bohatsch and Herz, make 
beautiful marks without the slightest change, and with quite a 
correct and natural position. With this one exception, Salchow 
is really not to be caught tripping, and his arms are always 
correct." — Winter Sports Review, Oct., 191 1 . See Dr. Winzer on 
four types of rocker prints, Deutscher Wintersport, Jan. 17, 1913. 

Herr G. Miiller (Boston Arena) skates this rocker without 
swing. He crosses the balance-foot over the print and holds it 
there while he executes the turn with the skating-foot, and 
therefore begins the back curve in proper (Fuchs) position with 
the balance-foot in front. The "forthcoming" skater (p. 190) 
has come forth! 


464 — rof Rocker — Rittberger. 

"All below is strength, and all above is grace. 

— Dryden, Absalom and Achitophel, I, 27. 

" Whate'er he did was done with so much ease, 
In him alone 'twas natural to please." 

— Dryden, Epistle to Congreve, 19. 

let the ankle, not from weakness but from strength under 
perfect control, succumb to the weight and catch a strong 
edge. The turn is made by the skating-leg, independent of 
the hip just at the time and in the place where you would 
otherwise skate a change of edge (the twisted position at 
the turn, Fig. 463, Meyer, Fig. 464, Rittberger,* Fig. 
465, Salchow, is held only a few seconds). Lift the bal- 
ance-foot and the corresponding arm, throw out the heel 
of the skating-foot as it flips the turn, and follow with the 
eyes the balance-arm elbow as you rotate it backwards. 
To hold out the curve, carry the head high, but swing the 
balance-foot loosely over the print (Cf. Fig. 466, 376, 
Salchow), and "relax," so as to let all your weight run 
the skate to the end of the circle. It is much the better 
way to start the second curve, as Fuchs and G. Miiller 


. 466 — After the turn. 465 — Before the turn. 

rof Rockers — Salchow (See p. 191, note). 

"Some defect in him 
Did quarrel with the noblest grace he ow'd." — T., 3, 1, 44. 

"It is much easier to be critical than to be correct." 

— Disraeli, Speech, Jan. 24, i860. 

do, with the free-foot in front, the way every back curve 
should be started. 

Outside Back Rocker. Second half, LOB-OF. 
Salchow says that "the outside back rocker is very well 
shown" by our snaps of him on p. 154. The little short 
forward swing 2 of the balance-foot which he put in with 
the quick "jump" of his shoulders at the turn, so as to be 
able to thrust it back (swing 3) when he caught the for- 
ward edge, he now generally omits, Fig. 467. The 
balance-shoulder shoots forward and the turn is flipped 
on the back part of the skate, just as the balance-foot is 
brought down close to the heel, and crossed over inside 

468 — lob Rocker 

After the turn. 


467 — lob Rocker 

Before the turn. 


the print, Fig. 468, (Cf. Practice Movement I) so that 
you can see it over your left shoulder, skating-knee deeply 

21 a. (4) Inside Forward Rocker (See General Hint 
9, p. 174). First half, RIF-IB. "The inside rockers are 
skated chiefly by the balance-shoulder; the movements 
of the balance-foot are merely supplementary to the 
action as a whole. " Salchozv, 1907. His simplified way now 
is to skate the turn mainly by the action of the skating- 

470 — After the turn. 469 — Before the turn. 

lif Rocker — Salchow. 
"His head over his shoulder turned." — Hamlet, 2, 1, 97. 

foot, the balance-foot held in front (Fig. 469, 21b, LIF) 
before as well as after the turn, Fig. 470, and the set into 
the ib balance helped by looking hard over the skating- 
shoulder (Cf. Fig. 420, p. 178), and crossing balance-foot 
over the print. As in all turns, the shoulders are now 
moved before and after, but rarely at the turn. 

Inside Backward Rocker. Second half, LIB-IF. Slow, 
unscrew rotation brings balance-foot close to skating- 
foot, weight ahead of skating-foot at the turn. With the 
body twisted way round in preparation for the second 
curve (without Salchow's second swing) flip the skating- 
foot on the heel into sharp inside forward edge, and drop 
the balance-foot toes out, over or a little outside the print. 
The second curve is held the more easily, the more the 
shoulders and balance-leg are spread-eagled into the line 
of the print (as in the if after the ob bracket, p. 188). 
In this "new" rocker, there is only a slight movement of 
the balance-foot; the turn is executed mainly by the skat- 
ing-foot. Just before the turn, Herr Muller looks over 
his left shoulder at the heel of his balance-foot, which is 


a little ahead of the skating-foot. At the turn, the skat- 
ing-foot darts ahead of the balance-foot, and the balance- 
foot simply spread-eagles into position for normal if. 

The balance-foot passes softly by the skating-foot, a 
little way, and close to it, before all rocking turns. 



The advanced figures (p. 128) are combinations of the 
above turns, by means of the change of edge, into three- 
lobed and two-lobed eights, which need little further 
demonstration to skaters who have mastered the ele- 
mentary figures. 

One Foot Eight. The one-foot eight being an alter- 
nate-foot figure, not continuous, should be large: there- 
fore, the knee-bending is stronger, and the cross-balance 
swing of the free-foot deeper after the change than in the 
single serpentine (p. 178 ff); but the shoulder action is 
just the same. See Fig. 428. 

Change-Three (Paragraph Eight). When, however, 
the change leads up to a turn, then the shoulder action 
after the change is that required for the turn; e. g., after 
a simple change from rif to of, the left shoulder is held 

back (p. 179); but if a three 
or a loop is to come, the left 
shoulder goes forward imme- 
diately after the change, 474. 
Three -Change- Three. 
The same applies to the 
three-change-three, Cf. New 
Skating, p.' 46. (For the 
American "Four Edges," see 

471 472 p. 48). Fig. 471 is the present 

Alternate Continuous standard of print to follow in 

Three-Change-Three aU thege figures< For mQve _ 

ment of balance-foot in back three, see p. 182. The swing 
of the balance-foot (425) and the bite of the skating edge 
(Fig. 474) are more vigorous than in the elementary figures. 


For Free Skating, see p. 131; Brokaw's Art of Skating 
(1913), chap, vii; Primer, p. 60 ff; and New Skating, chap, 
iv, from which the following extract is taken: 

"In the free skating, connecting elements now become 
available, in which American expert skaters generally 
excel foreigners; namely, spins (p. 10$) single or double, 
on the flat of the skate or on the toe (pirouettes); cross- 
foot and two-foot whirls (p. 106); jumps, on two feet, 


474 — Loop -Change-Loop 


. "His very action speaks 

In every power that moves." 

— A. C, 3, 12, 35. 

as in the spread- 
eagle jump 
(Fig. 132), or 
on one foot, as 
in the flying 
turn (Figs. 475- 
6); heel and toe 
movements, in- 
cluding pivot 
circling (p. 108); 
and grape-vines 
(p. 84) and other two foot 
twists (pp. 85, 102), the vari- 
ety of which is much greater 
here than abroad. Cf . Primer, 





p. 60. But — and here is the _r\ ■ . . 
rub — our skaters have never 
been called upon to amalga- 
mate their great variety of iso- 
lated figures into a harmonious 
coherent performance set to 
music, which should impress 
all who see it as an artistic unit 
of rhythmic and graceful move- 

"To tell just how to perfect 
oneself in such* peculiarly in- 
dividual and temperamental 

475 — Jump — Held 
"An easy leap." 
— /. HA, 1, 3, 201. 

qualities as these, is 
out of the question. 
It is obvious that 
only those figures 
should be attempt- 
ed which can be 
skated with aban- 
don and perfect 
mastery of balance, 
swing, pace, and 
edge; only those 
which will produce 
a characteristic in- 
dividual perform- 
ance of liquid con- 

If See, also, § E in Holletschek (1910 7 ), with over a dozen 
pages of new free-skating and pair-skating programs. 


476— The Flying Mercury 

"Rise from the ground like feather' d 
Mercury." — 1 HA, 4, 1, 106. 


By Madge Syers (Mrs. Edgar Syers), London, the 

First I. S. U. Champion, and the Most Accomplished 

Woman Skater in Europe To-day 

When I was a child, Skating for Women was almost 
unknown. Since then, with the introduction of artificial 
ice rinks and the opening of so many Alpine and other 
winter resorts, the art has gone' forward with leaps and 
bounds. The English school was not well adapted for 
women, the jerk at starting and the sudden stiffening of 
the knee being most ungraceful. Fig. 477. It was in the 

477 — English Style (See Primer, p. 15). 

"Why then do you skate (walk) as if you had swallowed a 
ramrod?" — Epictetus, Discourses, Chap. xxi. 

year 1898 when the first International Championship 
was held in London that our eyes were opened. (See pp. 
37, 41). The skating of the three competitors (Fuchs, 
HUgel, and Grenander) was a revelation; the lightness 
and grace of the performance and the apparent ease with 
which the most difficult figures (such as no English 
skater had then successfully attempted) were executed, 
indicated that we had much both to learn and to un- 

We have now in England several women able to hold 
their own in the Championship for Women, which was 
instituted by the International Skating Union in 1905. 
(Fig. 478, Mrs. Syers, the first winner of the Women's 
Championship). This Championship, like all other com- 


fm' 1 ^ 

478 — Left Inside Forward — Mrs. Syers. 

"She moves a goddess and she looks a queen." 

—Pope's Iliad, iii, 208. 

"Incessu vera patinet (pray excuse 
The mongrel verb — 'tis French Vergilian Latin); 
I mean she glides like Venus — there's no Muse 
Of Skating, or I'd manage to get that in!" 

-Anon, The Incognita at the Skating-Club , 1893, in Syers's 
Poetry of Skating (1905), P- 75- 

petitions held under the rules of the I.S.U., is divided into 
two parts, the compulsory figures and the free skating. 
In the practice for the compulsory figures the thought- 
less repetition of a figure is useless; the mind must 
be brought to bear upon the work and to direct the 
skates. One sees many skaters entirely dependent upon 
their instructors; it is because they have never thought 
for themselves or understood a single step of their 

There are so many excellent books of instruction for 
the compulsory figures that it is needless here to give more 
than a few hints. Of all the qualifications necessary for 
the school figures steady perseverance is perhaps the 
most important. No matter how gifted, no skater has 
ever attained the highest ranks without hard work. (Fig. 


479 — The Young Hungarian Skater, Frl. Opika von 
Meray-Horvath, of Budapest, whose faithful practice 
according to the Fuchs system, has rewarded her with the 
World's Championship for 191 2. See Frontispiece of Primer. 

479.) The elements must be thoroughly mastered before 
attempting the more intricate figures. The school figures 
should be skated rather slowly, as is the custom of all the 
masters of the art, with edges firm and bold. Care should 
be taken not to make the figure too large; the usual size 
of an eight for women would be about twelve to fourteen 

It is in the free skating that we English skaters usually 
fail, probably owing to lack of opportunity for practice, 


our rinks being both small and crowded; and perhaps 
also to a certain stiffness which is characteristic of us as a 

"Legs for necessity, not for flexure." — T. C, 2, 3, 114. 

"I hardly yet have learned to bend my limbs." 

— King John, 4, 1, 165. 

Free skating is rather an ordeal. It requires considera- 
ble strength, both physical and mental, to skate for 
four or five minutes on an empty rink, with judges ready 
to note the slightest failing. It is especially trying out 
of doors should there be a high wind or the ice be in bad 
condition. ' . . 

Free skating, whenever possible, should be practised 
to music, a march or waltz for preference. Great help 
may be obtained if the time is well marked; for it gives 
to the programme rhythm and swing, two of the most 
important points in a successful whole. The novice is 

invariably impetuous, and 
scrambles from one figure to 
another in a breathless state of 
hurry, forgetting in her excite- 
ment position and carriage. The 
successful competitor, although 
skating fast, never appears to 
hurry; her positions are easy 
(Fig. 480) and varied; she never 
forgets that, however difficult 
her figures, they are compara- 
tively worthless if the time is 
lost, thereby destroying at once 
the charm of her programme. 

It is natural that we should 
all wish to appear at our best on 
these occasions. Try, therefore, 
to look happy — as if you were 
enjoying it. Do not assume the 
pained expression one sees on 
the faces of so many beginners. 
A good example of a joyful performance is that of Frau- 
lein Hiibler of Munich. She dances through her pro- 
gramme with a most engaging gaiety, smiling on judges 
and spectators alike. 

The most attractive items for a free skating programme 
are somewhat a matter of opinion, but certainly several 
dance steps should be included; they are not necessarily 
difficult and they add an air of lightness (Fig. 481), 
which is most desirable; moreover, they are restful to 

. 480 — riof Change 
Frl. Elsa Rendschmitt, 
Berlin, I. S. U. Cham- 
pion, 1909. 


481 — Kreuzpolka — Herr Dr. and Frau Winzer, 
Dresden, Champion Pair-Skaters of Germany, 191 2. 
See diagram, Fig. 502. 

"I do bend my knee with thine." — 3H 6 , 2, 3, 33. 

the performer who desires to introduce any difficult or 
tiring figures. » 

Many skaters find great difficulty in the run by which 
impetus is gained for spirals, etc., or to connect the 

482— Toe Spin— English 

"She rises on the toe." 
— Cf. Shakespeare, Troi- 
lus and Cressida, 4, 5, 14. 

483— "The Salute" 

"Rise up, rise up, Xarifal" 
— J. G. Lockhart, The 

Bridal of Andalla. 


figures. Long pushing strokes or pecking with the toe 
of the skate should be vigorously avoided. The necessary- 
speed can be gained by six or eight short smart strokes, 
which must be noiseless, taken from the inside of the 
blade, and toes turned out slightly. See p. 212. 

Jumps are not very attractive for a woman; her skirt 
is apt to become twisted and awkward, whereas in move- 
ments like a toe-spin the skirt flies in a graceful circular 
movement. Fig. 482, toe spin. Cf. the American (pro- 
fessional) style, Figs. 484, 485. 

484 — American (Professional) 485 — Pirouette 

"She can spin." "Turned on the toe." 

— T. G., 3, 1, 316. — L. L. L., 5, 2, 114. 

The programme should be divided into two or three 
sections in the mind of the performer. When grouped 
in this manner, the items so often forgotten in the ex- 
citement of the moment are more easily remembered. 
The division, however, must not be apparent to the 
onlookers. An appearance of continuity should above all 
be aimed at; one figure should merge almost imper- 
ceptibly into another. The exit should be carefully 
planned. A figure which leaves the skater in the middle 
of the rink, whence she must tamely walk off, destroys 
the effect of the programme. The figure should be orig- 
inal and striking, — one which conveys the skater to the 
side of the rink and, when possible, facing the judges. 

It is well to have one or two items to spare; as the 
skater should never be at fault or stop for an instant 
until time is called. In all international competitions 
the minutes are called; and it often happens that a pro- 


gramme which in practice is long enough to fill the 
required period will be found some seconds short in com- 
petition, probably owing to the skater's having started 
sooner or to the band's playing faster. It is then that 
the spare figures are required. They should be skated 
just before the exit spiral. Fig. 486. The skater must 
judge whether one or more are necessary to complete the 
requisite time. 

486 — rob Spiral (Exit) — Mrs. Syers, Davos, 1903. 

"So distinctly wrought 
That one might almost say her body thought." 

— Donne, Mistress Drury. 

"Example is always more efficacious than precept." 

—RasseLas, XXX. 

When possible, a young skater should attend a cham- 
pionship meeting. She will find it the greatest help. 
More can be learnt by carefully watching a fine exponent 
than can be gained in other ways; but, I repeat, the 
mind must be brought to bear upon the work. Try to 
find the reason for the different movements, for they 
all have a reason, and this constitutes the difference 
between a good and a medium skater; with the former, 
every position has an object; with the latter, it just 
happens so. 

"Ther,e is occasions and causes why and wherefore in all 
things. "—H°, 5, 1, 3- 


The important question of costume should be carefully- 
considered. A skirt must always be an impediment, par- 
ticularly when there is a wind; therefore, do not hamper 
yourself unnecessarily by a long or pleated skirt, but 
choose one short and rather narrow, of a fairly heavy 
material, cut to hang away from the figure, and weighted 
with a band of some close fur. Altho' many prefer the 
appearance of a full skirt, it should not be worn because 
it is so apt to get under the skate and cause an awkward 
fall; and it has a most tiresome habit of wrapping around 
the knees and binding them together. A loose warm 
blouse and fur toque should be preferred. Nothing 
should be worn which restricts the movements. No one 
will ever learn to skate who is tightly laced. This foolish 
habit is both dangerous to health and the cause of many 
bad falls. The waist must be free, so that the muscles 
have full play. Boots should be of soft calf, never of 
patent leather; they should be rather high and fit closely. 

As to skates, all the best skaters abroad, and most of 
those in England use the Jackson Haines pattern, which 
has a rounded prow. The width of the blade is a bare 
quarter of an inch. This skate is far easier and quicker 
for dance steps and is less dangerous than a pointed skate. 
The best skates are always screwed to the boots; in 
Europe the detachable kind are never used by good 
skaters. (See Primer, pp. 10-12.) 

Skating is an exercise fitted for both old and young. 
It may be taken as an exacting art or merely as a pleasant 
diversion; but for those who intend to practice for com- 
petitions, it has endless attractions. Its difficulties make 
it all the more interesting. There are always new fields 
to conquer. From the point of view of health, there are 
few if any exercises to compare with it; and it has the 
advantage of being equally fascinating when practised 
alone or in the delightful form of pair-skating. Figs. 487, 
500. Madge Syers. 

"Skating (angling) may be said to be so like the mathe- 
matics that it can never be fully learnt. " 

— Walton's Preface to the Compleat Angler. 

"Yet nevertheless, the game is good, 

For he who wins at last 
Must work and work to hold the ground 

He conquered in the Past. 
He still must woo, tho' he has won, 

Nor slacken his endeavor, 
For giving most, you still can give — ■ 

And give — and give — forever." 

H. C. J., An Old Skater to his Old Skates, 1897. 

— Syers, The Poetry of Skating (1905), p. 80. 


PAIR-SKATING See Brokaw (1913)* Chaps, x, xi. 

By pair-skating I mean, of course, hand-in-hand skat- 
ing in the International style, which is not to be con- 
founded with Combined Hand-in-Hand Figure Skating 
(as expounded in the English book of that name, London, 
Longmans, Green & Co., 1904), or with United Combined 
Skating (the revised system of calling which was pub- 
lished in the London Field, 19th March, 19 10, and re- 
cently reissued in a neat little pamphlet, 1912). This 
kind of "pair-skating" is skated in the English style (cf. 
pp. 11, ff.), and therefore differs from the International 
style fundamentally, — both in purpose and in the means of 
attaining it. These differences are so radical that our Ca- 
nadian friends are reminded that efforts to reconcile or 
combine the two styles of combined-skating will inevitably 
share the fate of all previous attempts to reconcile the 
two styles of single-skating. Each has its advantages 
and disadvantages; but the two systems are tempera- 
mentally and artistically irreconcilable, as will be evi- 
dent from the following extract from the latest exposi- 
tion of "United Combined," in Winter Sports Review, 
Sept., 1912, by A.J. Davidson, English Champion, 1912: 

"Little effort is made to achieve a spectacular effect, 
the enjoyment of the skaters themselves being the sole 
aim in view. That enjoyment is gained from the per- 
fectly harmonious motion of the whole set, and from the 
fascinating sense of speed, direction, and action con- 
trolled, of difficulties overcome and dangers avoided by 
the power of a common intention inspired by a chosen 
leader. . . The spectator's pleasure is but a by-product of 
the performance. This is at the root of the divergence 
between the English and the International styles, which 
have both been evolved to gain their own particular ob- 
jects, and are the result of long experiment. Style, both 
in United and in Single Combined Skating, is, or should 
be, merely a means to an end. That end is, ultimately, to 
skate in combination with other skaters entirely unre- 
hearsed sequences of figures, almost as unrehearsed 
as the sequences of strokes in a rally at racquets in 
lawn tennis, so that two or more skaters fortuitously 
thrown together may enjoy their sport without prepa- 
ration of any sort; and not to skate a carefully planned 
and practiced programme of figures such as Pair or 
Single Skaters in the International style perform with 
the grace and skill that we all know and admire." 

With a view to the encouragement and development of 
Combined Skating along the lines at present approved by 
the N. S. A. of Gt. Britain in the general style and pose 


approved by the I. S. U., H. R. H. the Duke of Connaught 
has offered a Trophy to be skated for at least once in 
every two years, at Ottawa only, by Teams of four indi- 
viduals, two ladies and two gentlemen, from any recog- 
nized Skating Club in Canada or elsewhere. The six com- 
pulsory figures for the first competition, Feb. 13 and 14, 

Nellie Dean and Callie Curtis 

Early American Pair-Skaters in the 6o's. 

1913, are: 1. $b (p. 127) (1); 2. 22a (3); 3. 26b (2); 
4. 2%a (1); 5. Forward — and forward Q out, and forward 
in (3); 6. Twice-back — and forward centre-mohawk, back 
Q out — and forward in (4) — total, (14); to be skated 
without music. Each Four is also to skate five minutes 


Free-Skating to music, in unison, but not necessarily to 
centre. Continental experience has been unfavorable to 
prescribed figures in combined skating competitions (see 
p. 208 ff). 

487, 488— At the Country Club, Brookline, Mass. 

''With such a smooth, discreet, and stable bearing." 

— T. N., 4, 3, 19. 
"Bless me! What a very nice 
And comfortable trade is 
This of capering on the ice 
And skating with the ladies!" 
— Skating Song, Harper's Magazine, Dec, 1861. 

Our pair-skating is really combined free-skating. Con- 
sequently it can have no specially prescribed figures; and 
being original, is unhampered by rules and regulations. 
Few of its figures can be plotted in diagrams, because 
they give little suggestion of the cooperating movements; 
for^ the distinguishing characteristics of pair-skating, 
which make it the most delightful form of skating for the 
performers and the most popular with the general public 
— harmony, rhythm, precision, abandon, grace — can- 
not be put on paper. "The aim of pair-skating," a 
foreign champion has recently said, "is to present a 
symphony of motion of two persons on skates in such 
relation' to each other that the very differences of 
their physical attributes produce in an aesthetic sense 
a compelling charm. That means, therefore, that the aim 
distinctly is not, as in the skating of prescribed figures, 
and even in the free skating of single performers, the dis- 
play of 'stunts' of individual technical skill." 

I distinctly remember the astonishment and admiration 
with which I saw for the first time the marvellous per- 
formance of the Vienna pair, Herr Euler and Frau v. 
Szabo, and the rather slower and more difficult pair- 


skating of Mr. and Mrs. 
Syers at Davos, Switzer- 
land — the precision of their 
goings and comings, the 
rhythmic beat of their steps 
to perfect time, the pace, 
and the grace of it all. And 
I remember too that, 
brought up as I had been, to 
look upon the accurate print 
of a difficult figure as the 
criterion of good skating, I 
said (as Goodrich still says 
of Jackson Haines's skating, 
and as critics have said of 
the distinguished Munich 
pair, Herr Burger and Frl. 
Hiibler, who have never been 
surpassed in this kind of 
technique): "But it's only 
easy things they are skat- 
ing!" The traditions of our 
skating make it very diffi- 
cult, for even the most ex- 
pert American skaters, until 
they try it, to realize the difference between skating easy 
(or difficult) figures, slowly, alone by themselves, and 
skating them in harmony with a partner at a good pace, 
with ease and grace of movement, accurately to music. 
It simply is a different kind of excellence, and is not to be 
estimated by the same old standards. 

,,...., «*, 


-Mr. and Mrs. Syers 
at Davos 

"Grace was in all her steps." 
— Paradise Lost, viii, 488. 
"His very foot has music in't." 
— W. J. Mickle, The Mari- 
ner's Wife. 


In fact, the introduction of the rocking turns and other 
difficult figures into victorious pair-skating programs by 
Mr. and Mrs. Syers in 1904 (when they outskated the 
hitherto victorious Vienna pair, who still clung, per- 
haps disproportionately, to the dance steps which the 
Viennese inherited from Jackson Haines), made possible 
such rapid development in the art, that the I.S.U. stan- 
dards adopted in 1902 have proved themselves utterly 
inadequate to judge the pair-skating of to-day by. Where- 
as, each one of the sixty-nine school-figures has a value 
attributed to it varying in points from one to five (and the 
total marks in a competition sometimes run as high as 
two hundred and over); on the other hand, a five-minute 
pair-skating program, Fig. 499, seen by judges for the 


first time, without repetition, must be analyzed as it 
flies, and given a total mark of only twelve points, divided 
as in the free-skating, "six for contents of program (diffi- 
culty and variety) and six for manner of performance 
(harmonious composition, sureness of control, carriage, 
and movement). " When several pairs, out of a large 
number of entries (as at the World's Competition in 
Manchester, England, 191 2, — ten in all), are of almost 
equal excellence, what chance of a judgment free from 
impressionistic, patriotic, or other subjective influences, 
is likely to be rendered under such conditions, even if 
the judges are pair-skaters of artistic temperament, 
aesthetically trained eye, and critical judgment? It is 
physically, if not morally, impossible. They might, like 
intelligent spectators of artistic sympathies, whether 
expert skating-print critics or not, give a fair comparative 
judgment on (1) the total general effect of the perform- 
ance, (2) the form of the individual skaters, (3) strength 
and firmness of 
their edges, (4) the 
precision and 
rhythm of their 
cooperation, and 
(5) the verve, snap, 
life, and go of their 
execution; butwhat 
time have they 
(without diagrams 
previously sub- 
mitted by each 
contesting pair) to 
judge of the "har- 
monious composi- 
tion," " variety, " 
and "difficulty" of 
the figures, when 
they cannot see the 
prints; and if they 
could, are en- 
grossed in observ- 
ing more important 
elements? Besides, 
it is the very acme 
of the modern art 490 — Back Spiral, Shifting 

to conceal from The Winzers at Davos, 

judges and spec- "This is a most majestic vision, and 
tators alike every Harmonious charmingly." 
premeditated — T., 4, 1,118. 


effort, so that difficulties which it may have taken pair- 
skaters months of practice to overcome, may present 
the appearance of ease, — the very quality which now, 
alas, according to the present regulations, "abuses them 
to damn them." 

Many solutions 
have been offered 
— from Burger's 
(Munich) andMag- 
nus's (Paris), recom- 
mending the giv- 
ing of six points 
each to the "diffi- 
culty, variety, har- 
monious • composi- 
tion, sureness, car- 
riage, and move- 
ment," of the regu- 
lation as it stands, 
and adding six 
more for "unity or 
harmony in cooper- 
ation," thirty -six 
in all, — to Dr. Win- 
zer's (Dresden; Ber- 
lin Skating Club): 


Back Spiral, Parallel, Hands 

The Winzers at Davos. 
"Move still, still so, and own, no other 
function." — W. 7 1 ., 4, 4, 142. 

"Whoever will enjoy the bliss of skating, especially 
pair-skating, to the full, will indulge in it on his own 
account, for the pure pleasure of himself and others, 
not in competition. . . . The amateur pair-skater 
will do well to turn his back on the whole competition 
business as soon as he can, and devote himself without 
constraint and without prescription, in perfect freedom, 
to skating for pleasure. Only so practised can ice-skating 
be rightly called the most glorious and graceful of sports." 
This has hitherto been the spirit of our best pair- 
skating, which, at the Back Bay (outdoor) Skating Club, 
Boston, Country Club, Brookline, Conservatory Lake, 
Central Park, Tuxedo, and other suburban clubs, 
has made great strides during this same ten years. 
The pioneers have been Mr. George Atkinson, Jr., Presi- 
dent of the Boston Skating Club, and Mr. Charles M. 
Rotch and his sisters, Miss Edith Eliot Rotch and Mrs. 
Channing Frothingham. Recently the brilliant exhibi- 
tions of Mr. and Mrs. Irving Brokaw of New York and 
of Mrs. Harold Baker and Herr Schmitt at the Boston 
Arena, and a friendly interchange of visits between the 
Boston Club and the Minto Club of Ottawa and the Earl 


492 — A Combined Four, International Style 

"Making their style admired everywhere." — Cf. Sonnet, 84. 

Grey Club of Montreal, have aroused still keener interest, 

which can not fail to increase under the professional 

instruction at the Arena of the best pair-skaters in the 

world, Herr 

George and 

Frl. Elsbeth 

Muller, late 

of the Eispa- 

last, Berlin, 


Thanks to 
Mr. Atkin- 
son's persist- 
ent devotion 
to combined 
s k a 1 1 n% for 
many years, 
the abundant 
material for 
good com- 
ers i n 
ton is 

He has dem- 
onstrated the 

a nd 


A Combined Eight, International 

"Here's eight that must take hands." 

— a. r., 5, 4, 135. 

"Round and round, like a dance of snow." 
— Browning, Women and Roses. 

practicability of combined fours (Fig. 492) and even eights 
(Fig. 493) in the International Style. Although group- 
skating has been in the I.S.U. schedule since 1902, no com- 
petition in it has as yet taken place; but at Ottawa, next 


February, the first competition in International Fours for 
the new cup offered by the Duke of Connaught, will be 
held under the auspices of the Minto Club. The effect of 
competitions and class-tests in stimulating and con- 
centrating interest and effort is like the effect of exami- 
nations in school and college — good, if they are not 
abused. Unless, however, the conditions can be made 
such as to assure the escape from such results as have 
attended recent skating competitions in Europe, the 
beneficial effects of this friendly competition may be 
tempered. Fortunately, Americans and Canadians do 
not take the decisions of not infallible judges quite so 
seriously as the Teutonic temperament. See p. 221, for 
uniform class tests, based on the I.S.U. program, and 
therefore standard the world over. 

Though the general American and Continental skating 
critic, whose inevitable measuring stick is the print on the 
ice, may still think that the skating of such pairs as Mr. 
and Mrs. Johnson (London), the present champions 
(191 2 — see p. 36), the Bryns of Christiania, the Jakobs- 
sons of Helsingfors, and the Winzers of Dresden (cham- 
pions of Germany 1912) is made up largely of "easy" 
figures, many of our skaters are undoubtedly deterred 
fron taking up pair-skating by its difficulty — a diffi- 
culty, however, according to Mr. and Mrs. Syers, more 
apparent than real; for many figures are easier to skate 
with a partner than alone. (For some of these, see 
p. 113; cf. also p. 65 ff. and the Continental Skater's 
"Bible," Holletschek's Kunstfertigkeit im Eislaufen pp. 
203, ff., for methods of holding hands and for some of 
the simpler figures, more fully illustrated in the Primer, 
p. 44 ff.). See Burger's chapter in Brokaw (1913), pp. 
132, ff. 


"Now bid me run, And I will strive with things impossible.'* 

— /. C, 2, 1, 325. 

One of the most important points of the new pair- 
skating is the initial run for pace, which requires much 
practice to acquire (see p. 201). The vigorous runs of 
Lady Evelyn Grey and Mr. Haycock, of the Minto Club, 
on the teeth of their round-toed skates, were most effective; 
but they lacked the lightness, quietness, and charm of 
the dainty runs on the flat of the skate that added such 
characteristic distinction to the skating of the Vienna 
and the Munich pairs. This run is important for aesthetic 
as well as practical reasons; the keynote of the per- 
formance is struck with it — both the form and the pace 
of the pair are foreshadowed in the manner in which the 
initial number of the program is executed. 



"By well-balanced form we shall proceed." 

— M. M., 4, 3, 101. 

494 — Big Vigorous Forward and Back Spiral 

Herr Dr. and Frau Winzer, at Davos 
"In circling poise, swift as the winds along." — Thompson's Winter. 

495 — Waltzing, Hand-in-Hand (Montreal) 

"Hand in hand with fairy grace." — M. N. D., 5, 1, 406. 

A modern pair-skating program is made up largely of 
four kinds of figures, usually beginning with the first 


1. Big Spirals — varied sometimes by changes of edge 
and turns — but skated from one. (running) start. Figs. 
494, 490, 491, etc. 

2. Dance Steps — round dances, marches, waltzes, 
two-steps, mazurkas, etc. Figs. 495, 481. 

3. Hand-in-hand Figures, in which partners skate the 
same figures, usually on the same edge, foot, and direc- 
tion; but whether one is going backward while the other 
is going forward, or one is on the outside edge while the 
other is on the inside, they are going in the same general 
direction, aand are on the same side of the central line at 
the same time. Figs. 496, 498. 

496 — A Forward and Back Hand-in-Hand Spiral, 

At the Country Club, Brookline. 

"How smooth and even they do bear themselves." — H. 5 , 2, 2, 3. 

4. Separating Figures, in which one partner is on one 
side of the central line, the other on the other, perhaps 
on opposite foot and edge, but doing the same part of a 
symmetrical figure at the same time. Fig. 497. 

The fine art is to amalgamate a harmonious selection 
of these figures at a varying tempo, in a restful sequence 
and well disposed over the skating surface, into a ryth- 
mic program of fluid continuity. (See New Skating, p. 
52). It is a different kind of difficulty from that of early 
American skating; but because it is different is no justi- 
fication of the inference that the figures, so skated, are 
necessarily "easy." 

The relation of pair-skating to a skater's character and 


497 — Separating Figure. Inside forward threes at the centre. 

"Our separation so abides and flies 

That thou, residing here, go'st yet with me, 

And I, hence fleeing, here remain with thee." 

— A. C, i, 3, 102. 

artistic originality (as compared with the school-skating) 
is closer even than that of free-skating (cf. p. 135); and it 
would therefore be even more impertinent to suggest 
specific "ways and means" for such a peculiarly indi- 
vidual and original performance as pair-skating than it 

498— The Burger- Hubler Pivot 

(Cf. Primer, Title-page.) 
"A fine, quaint, graceful, and excellent fashion." — M. ^.,"3, 4, 22. 


(2) Burger-Hubler 
pivot, Fig. 498. 

LOF , 
(9) l!.G. W do) Run 
/ L 6. V°/ f° r spiral 

/lifY h\f \ 
Jr\b) (lib V 

i 1 1 pose 

(diagram X shortened) 

would be to suggest them for free-skating, (p. 195). (For 
detailed exposition and full illustration of waltzing, two- 
step, and the simpler pair-skating figures, see Primer, pp. 
46 fT). Suffice it to call attention here to the numerous 
photographs of expert pair-skaters in action, and to the 
"dry bones" of one or two very successful programs on 
the ice. Fig. 499 is the diagram of part of the program 
skated so successfully the past two years at the Boston 
Arena. The movement on the ice is of course continuous 
for five minutes; the diagram is broken up, to be 
crowded into the space. The reader, by joining the dia- 
gram at the numerals, may follow the sequence of steps 
and the general direction of the movements, even if he 
gets an inadequate sense of proportion and harmony. 

"With centric and eccentric scribbled o'er, 
Cycle and epicycle, orb in orb." 

— Paradise Lost, viii, 83. 

(1) Run for Spiral, ending in Burger-Hiibler pivot, 
Fig. 498. 

^ (2) Four of Steps, the last a large half circle, changing 
sides and direction. 

(3) Short Run to Pose, wave figure, forward three, 
Jackson Haines serpentine {Primer, p. 54), coming to- 
gether, Echelon position (p. 65), right arm behind, for 

(4) Dance Step, once-back and forward inside, ending 
facing up rink, gentleman crossing to lady's left. 

(5) Counter Figure, first towards right of rink, second 
towards left; lady passes over on last lif, facing down 
rink, hand-in-hand. 

(6) Two preliminary strokes to Change of Edge Figure, 
gentleman on left, inside spread-eagle scratch stroke 
{Primer, p. 55) and back stroke, and forward Mohawk, 
separating into another change of edge, oif, coming 
together again on rof, facing up rink. Hold this pose 

(7) until separation into Spectacle Figure; of Spec- 
tacle, if three, and ob Spectacle, and two toe points, 
and if and if and if, and long oif coming together 
facing down rink after another inside spread-eagle scratch 

(8) and back, and forward pose, hand-in-hand, sepa- 
rating into big oif change —coming together again on 
of, facing up rink. Hold this pose 

(9) until separation for Change Three and Salute on 
both toes (Fig. 483). After salute, change sides (as per 
diagram, which stops at this point) and, holding one 
hand, start run 


(10) up rink for spiral. This changes three times and 
winds lady around into waltz position in center of rink. 

(n) In Waltz (see Primer, p. 46) let go one hand for a 
little spiral (lady lof, right hand behind back to take 
partner's free hand) and back to waltz position. 

(12) Ten-step, with varia- 
tions (see Primer, p. 55), 
always with "4th step" in it; 
1st time, plain; 2d, under arm; 
3d, open out and back to 
back; 4th, under arm. 

(13) Slow down for Mazurka, 
at end of which hold rof. 

(14). Run for Victory Spiral 
(Fig. 500), gentleman rif, 
lady lof; lady swings back- 
ward to lib, joining both hands, 
one up high. Change edge and 
raise the other hand. Fig. 496. 

(15) Break, and finish back- 
ward, on toes (inside hands held 
high, and inside foot a little in 

Fig. 501 represents the 
model of a well composed, 
thoroughly studied, and most 
efficacious combined pair-skat- 
ing figure, as executed by Dr. 
and Mrs. Winzer at the World's 
Competition, in Manchester, 
England, February 17, 1912, 
and in the German Champi- 
onship at Berlin, February 
23, 1912, which they won. Of course, it should be seen 
skated; for the diagram opposite cannot give the right 
impression of the motion as it is executed by the two 
partners. If it takes a hundred trials before partners 
can reach meeting point 1 in good time and form, they 
must not be discouraged. Dr. Johnson's dictum in 
Rasselas, "Many things difficult to design prove easy to 
performance," hardly applies to pair-skating. 

The two dances: Fig. 502 Scotch National Dance, re- 
peating in a straight line, partners exchanging parts; and 
Fig. 503, Machiche, a circular dance going round counter- 
clock-wise, seem to be rather simple according to the dia- 
grams on paper; but it took the inventors three winters of 
full training to perfect them. And most Americans smile 

500— The Victory Spiral 

"Natural graces that extin- 
guished art." 

— /. #.«, 5, 3, 192. 


at pair-skating as "easy." (In the diagram, next page, 
Figs. 1-6 and 2-6 give the succession of the position of 
the feet of one partner, so that the same figures show 
the relative position of the feet at the same time. The 
gentleman's and the lady's parts are identical — the same 
feet and movements at the same time.) 


501— A Combined 
Pair-Skating Fig- 
ure — Designed and 
executed by Herr Dr. 
and Frau Winzer, in 
the Championship 
competitions for 



vcrossing in front 

C ub 



V R»F 

steps no 
longer sym- 
but LOF, 

once -back 
to rob into 
waltz posi- 
tion, the 
pair con- 
tinuing in a 
comb i n e d 

This figure begins with two short powerful toe steps, 
hands clasped, Gentleman's r + Lady's l. Let go hands 
and separate, meeting on the axis at points 1-7: at 1 and 
2, both pairs of hands clasped, G., r over l; L., l over 
R, crossing over behind, and pushing off again immedi- 
ately; at 3, 4, without taking hold of hands; at 5, both 
pairs of hands [clasped, G., r over l; L., l over r, cross- 
ing over in front; at 6, one pair of hands clasped G., l, + 
L. r; at 7, change of hands to G., r, L. l. 


Hopping on tip- 
toe, Fig. 481. 

Face to face, both 
hands clasped: G, 
r over l; L, l over 
r, crossing over in 

Right swings ener- 
getically in front 
before being put 

Side by Side. 
Hands clasped, G, 
r -}- L, L. 

Crossing over in 
front, all hands 

(The little short 
steps all cross over 

Hands G, l + L, 
r loose, change face 
to face to face, and 
clasp both hands 
again: G, l over r; 
L, r over l. 

(The marks 1, 2 
mean touching on 
the ice lightly with 
the free-foot, after 
swinging it vigor- 
ously round.) 

Hands G, l + L, 
r loose, change 
back to back and 
at the same mo- 
ment clasp hands 
again, G, r over l; 
L, l over r. 

G (left) L (right) 
face to face, hands 
clasped: G, l over 
r; L, r over l. 



- Letgohands. 











502 — Kreuzpolka 503 — Machiche 


Hands not 
but changing 
in position to 
G, r over l; 
L, r over l. 
Lady now 
faces back of 

Left moves 
by in front 
of Right. 

Hands clasp- 
ed again G, L 
over r; L, l 
over r. 



Cross over 

cross over in 

Cross over 

G face to 
back of 
Lady, hands 
clasped, G, 
l over r; L, 
l over r. 


The program of the International Skating Union (p. 
126) has been the standard so long, that it has been made 
the basis of four graded class tests by the Berlin Skating 
Club, which may well become, also, the standard class 
tests of the world. (For the International tests of the 
N. S. A. of Great Britain, (adopted at Ottawa), see p. 138; 
for some N. E. tests, see New Skating, p. 47). The selec- 
tion from the International schedule according to the 
following principle may well furnish a universal standard: 

IV Class, all the figures that count 1; 

III Class, all the figures that count 2 (except, for three 
hard 2's, 13, 16, 17, substitute three easy 3's, Nos. 23 
27, 29.) 

II Class, all the other figures that count 3 (except three 
hard ones, 31, 35, and 36), and the three hard 2's. 

I Class, all the figures that count 4 and 5, and the three 
hard 3's. 

The complete list of figures in each test, then, is as 
follows (the names of the figures corresponding to the 
numbers, with diagrams, will be found on pp. 127, 128: 

Class IV (See Primer, p. 68). 
10 out of 13; starred figures must be skated. *i, *2, *$, 
$a or by *7, ga or b> *io, *u, *I2, 28a or b. (Choice by 
judges, not by contestants). 

Class III 
*4, 6a or b, 8a or b, *I4, *I5, 23a or b, 24a or b, 26a or b, 
27a or b 29a or b, 30a or b, — 11 out of 19 to be skated. 

Class II 
*I3, *i6, *I7, 18a or b, iga or b f 22a or b y 250 or b, 32a or b 9 
33a or b, 340 or b, — 10 out of 17. 

Class I 
20a or b y 21a or b y 31a or b, 35a or b, 36a or b, 37a or b, 
38a or by 3ga or b y 4.0a or b y 4.1a or b t — 10 out of 20. 

Tests will be taken before three judges, who will mark 
o to 6 for each figure. A test is not passed, if, on any 
figure, every judge gives less than 2\ marks. Fifty per 
cent, of marks is necessary to pass Class IV, and eighty 
per cent, the other classes. 

The Skating Club of Boston has just adopted some 
novel tests, rendered exceptionally encouarging by the 
combination of intermediate (ribbon) tests with three 
class (medal) tests. The first class is not too hard for 
expert club members. All the I. S. U. figures are in- 
cluded, except the last three. 


SPECIAL FIGURES (see p. 132) 

Here are some new Special Figures, Fig. 504, 1-14, 
which Dr. Winzer designed and skated before he gave up 
single skating for the more attractive form of pair-skat- 
ing. Like all special figures, so dear to the American 
Skater (see p. 123) they are, as Dr. Winzer now writes, 
" mostly nothing but strange acrobatic tricks without any 
aesthetic value, in respect to the aspect of the motion, 
in which the fine art of skating is to be found. . . These 
tricky things demand continual training — and spoil the 
fine, artistic skating such as is necessary for good pair- 
skating, which also requires incessant training." Ameri- 

Fig. 504— Special Figures, by 


can skaters who want difficulty and nothing else may here 
have their fill. For fuller description, see p. 55. 

Fig. 504. Notes: No. 2. The rocker in this figure is 
executed with the balance leg in front all the way (as in 
the spectacles). 

Nos. 4, 10. "The Mad Three" — all forward; also No. 
5, "The Mad Double-Three — no change in direction. 

No. 6. Curtis eight, with outside back loops, r and l 
alternately, crossing over in front. 

No. 7. The rocker in this figure must be skated with 
the Fuchs swings; otherwise, impossible. 

No. 9. Observe the size, about 38 feet long! 

No. 12. "The Mad Beak" Star, all forward— the most 
difficult of all. 


Dr. Hugo Winzer, Dresden, 1903-1907